Detection of Canine Transitional Cell Carcinoma Using a Bladder Tumor Antigen Urine Dipstick Test

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28 Scopus citations


Canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) carries a poor prognosis in part due to late disease detection. The measurement of specific tumor markers shed in the urine may aid in sensitive, early disease detection and therefore improved prognosis. A 1-year prospective clinical trial was designed to assess the efficacy, sensitivity and specificity of the first generation Bard BTA test to diagnose TCC in dogs. This test is a qualitative, rapid, latex agglutination, dipstick test run on voided urine, which measures a glycoprotein antigen complex associated with bladder cancer in human patients. Sixty-five dogs were entered in the study: 20 TCC confirmed patients, 19 healthy controls and 26 urologic controls with a variety of conditions including urinary tract infection, crystalluria and proteinuria. Overall test sensitivity was 90% and specificity was 78%. False positive test results were noted in the presence of significant glucosuria (4+), proteinuria (4+), and pyuria or hematuria (> 30-40 WBC or RBC per hpf). Urine parameters that had no effect on efficacy included collection method (cystocentesis or free catch), pH, specific gravity, crystalluria, bilirubinuria, bacteriuria and casts. These data indicated that the Bard BTA test was sensitive for the detection of the bladder tumor-associated antigen complex in canine TCC. As evaluated, this test may serve as a useful adjunct to diagnosis, especially when cytology or biopsy is questionable or impractical. Furthermore, because of the high sensitivity of the test, it may be a practical screening test to rule out TCC in geriatric patients or patients with clinical signs related to the lower urinary tract, particularly before pyuria and hematuria develop which may interfere with test results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)33-38
Number of pages6
JournalVeterinary Clinical Pathology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1999


  • Dipstick
  • Dog
  • Transitional cell carcinoma
  • Tumor marker
  • Urine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • veterinary(all)


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