Design features and performance of a PET system for animal research

P. D. Cutler, Simon R Cherry, E. J. Hoffman, W. M. Digby, M. E. Phelps

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

85 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The design features of a PET system designed for animal studies are described and its performance evaluated. The system employs a two-dimensional modular detector array consisting of bismuth germanate detector elements that are 3.5 mm (transaxially) by 6.25 mm (axially) by 30 mm (deep). These arrays are optically coupled to a pair of dual-photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The detector ring is 64 cm in diameter with a field of view (FOV) of 40 cm by 5.4 cm axially, acquiring 15 slices at 3.4 mm spacing. These features include: (1) digitization of PMT signals from each block for improved position and energy discrimination of coincident events and (2) dual-window energy discrimination for simultaneous but separate acquisition of photopeak and scatter data. Intrinsic resolution averages 3.5 mm at the center of the FOV, while reconstructed resolution (ramp filter) ranges from 3.8 mm at the center of the FOV to 4.6 mm at an 8 cm radius. Axial resolution averages 4.4 and 4.9 mm and sensitivity averages 4.2 and 6.1 kcps/μCi/cc for cross planes and enhanced direct planes, respectively. Randoms fraction is high due to reduced interplane shielding, giving a peak true count rate of 103 kcps for a 10 cm cylinder. Scatter as a fraction of trues is 16% for a 10 cm cylinder at a lower energy threshold of 350 keV. All parameters are sensitive to energy threshold. Spatial resolution improves by 11% transaxially and 9% axially, scatter fraction drops to 10%, and overall sensitivity drops by 48% when the threshold value is increased from 350 keV to 450 keV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)595-604
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Nuclear Medicine
Volume33
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1992

Fingerprint

Architectural Accessibility
bismuth germanium oxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Cite this

Cutler, P. D., Cherry, S. R., Hoffman, E. J., Digby, W. M., & Phelps, M. E. (1992). Design features and performance of a PET system for animal research. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 33(4), 595-604.

Design features and performance of a PET system for animal research. / Cutler, P. D.; Cherry, Simon R; Hoffman, E. J.; Digby, W. M.; Phelps, M. E.

In: Journal of Nuclear Medicine, Vol. 33, No. 4, 1992, p. 595-604.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cutler, PD, Cherry, SR, Hoffman, EJ, Digby, WM & Phelps, ME 1992, 'Design features and performance of a PET system for animal research', Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 595-604.
Cutler, P. D. ; Cherry, Simon R ; Hoffman, E. J. ; Digby, W. M. ; Phelps, M. E. / Design features and performance of a PET system for animal research. In: Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 1992 ; Vol. 33, No. 4. pp. 595-604.
@article{a6d7a55acde84838ae754e9e1e583ee6,
title = "Design features and performance of a PET system for animal research",
abstract = "The design features of a PET system designed for animal studies are described and its performance evaluated. The system employs a two-dimensional modular detector array consisting of bismuth germanate detector elements that are 3.5 mm (transaxially) by 6.25 mm (axially) by 30 mm (deep). These arrays are optically coupled to a pair of dual-photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The detector ring is 64 cm in diameter with a field of view (FOV) of 40 cm by 5.4 cm axially, acquiring 15 slices at 3.4 mm spacing. These features include: (1) digitization of PMT signals from each block for improved position and energy discrimination of coincident events and (2) dual-window energy discrimination for simultaneous but separate acquisition of photopeak and scatter data. Intrinsic resolution averages 3.5 mm at the center of the FOV, while reconstructed resolution (ramp filter) ranges from 3.8 mm at the center of the FOV to 4.6 mm at an 8 cm radius. Axial resolution averages 4.4 and 4.9 mm and sensitivity averages 4.2 and 6.1 kcps/μCi/cc for cross planes and enhanced direct planes, respectively. Randoms fraction is high due to reduced interplane shielding, giving a peak true count rate of 103 kcps for a 10 cm cylinder. Scatter as a fraction of trues is 16{\%} for a 10 cm cylinder at a lower energy threshold of 350 keV. All parameters are sensitive to energy threshold. Spatial resolution improves by 11{\%} transaxially and 9{\%} axially, scatter fraction drops to 10{\%}, and overall sensitivity drops by 48{\%} when the threshold value is increased from 350 keV to 450 keV.",
author = "Cutler, {P. D.} and Cherry, {Simon R} and Hoffman, {E. J.} and Digby, {W. M.} and Phelps, {M. E.}",
year = "1992",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "33",
pages = "595--604",
journal = "Journal of Nuclear Medicine",
issn = "0161-5505",
publisher = "Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc.",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Design features and performance of a PET system for animal research

AU - Cutler, P. D.

AU - Cherry, Simon R

AU - Hoffman, E. J.

AU - Digby, W. M.

AU - Phelps, M. E.

PY - 1992

Y1 - 1992

N2 - The design features of a PET system designed for animal studies are described and its performance evaluated. The system employs a two-dimensional modular detector array consisting of bismuth germanate detector elements that are 3.5 mm (transaxially) by 6.25 mm (axially) by 30 mm (deep). These arrays are optically coupled to a pair of dual-photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The detector ring is 64 cm in diameter with a field of view (FOV) of 40 cm by 5.4 cm axially, acquiring 15 slices at 3.4 mm spacing. These features include: (1) digitization of PMT signals from each block for improved position and energy discrimination of coincident events and (2) dual-window energy discrimination for simultaneous but separate acquisition of photopeak and scatter data. Intrinsic resolution averages 3.5 mm at the center of the FOV, while reconstructed resolution (ramp filter) ranges from 3.8 mm at the center of the FOV to 4.6 mm at an 8 cm radius. Axial resolution averages 4.4 and 4.9 mm and sensitivity averages 4.2 and 6.1 kcps/μCi/cc for cross planes and enhanced direct planes, respectively. Randoms fraction is high due to reduced interplane shielding, giving a peak true count rate of 103 kcps for a 10 cm cylinder. Scatter as a fraction of trues is 16% for a 10 cm cylinder at a lower energy threshold of 350 keV. All parameters are sensitive to energy threshold. Spatial resolution improves by 11% transaxially and 9% axially, scatter fraction drops to 10%, and overall sensitivity drops by 48% when the threshold value is increased from 350 keV to 450 keV.

AB - The design features of a PET system designed for animal studies are described and its performance evaluated. The system employs a two-dimensional modular detector array consisting of bismuth germanate detector elements that are 3.5 mm (transaxially) by 6.25 mm (axially) by 30 mm (deep). These arrays are optically coupled to a pair of dual-photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The detector ring is 64 cm in diameter with a field of view (FOV) of 40 cm by 5.4 cm axially, acquiring 15 slices at 3.4 mm spacing. These features include: (1) digitization of PMT signals from each block for improved position and energy discrimination of coincident events and (2) dual-window energy discrimination for simultaneous but separate acquisition of photopeak and scatter data. Intrinsic resolution averages 3.5 mm at the center of the FOV, while reconstructed resolution (ramp filter) ranges from 3.8 mm at the center of the FOV to 4.6 mm at an 8 cm radius. Axial resolution averages 4.4 and 4.9 mm and sensitivity averages 4.2 and 6.1 kcps/μCi/cc for cross planes and enhanced direct planes, respectively. Randoms fraction is high due to reduced interplane shielding, giving a peak true count rate of 103 kcps for a 10 cm cylinder. Scatter as a fraction of trues is 16% for a 10 cm cylinder at a lower energy threshold of 350 keV. All parameters are sensitive to energy threshold. Spatial resolution improves by 11% transaxially and 9% axially, scatter fraction drops to 10%, and overall sensitivity drops by 48% when the threshold value is increased from 350 keV to 450 keV.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026522954&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0026522954&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 33

SP - 595

EP - 604

JO - Journal of Nuclear Medicine

JF - Journal of Nuclear Medicine

SN - 0161-5505

IS - 4

ER -