Dental and Temporomandibular Joint Pathology of the Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis)

N. Yanagisawa, R. E. Wilson, Philip H Kass, Frank J Verstraete

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Skull specimens from 836 kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) were examined macroscopically according to predefined criteria; 559 specimens were included in this study. The study group consisted of 248 (44.4%) females, 267 (47.8%) males and 44 (7.9%) specimens of unknown sex; 128 (22.9%) skulls were from young adults and 431 (77.1%) were from adults. Of the 23,478 possible teeth, 21,883 teeth (93.2%) were present for examination, 45 (1.9%) were absent congenitally, 405 (1.7%) were acquired losses and 1,145 (4.9%) were missing artefactually. No persistent deciduous teeth were observed. Eight (0.04%) supernumerary teeth were found in seven (1.3%) specimens and 13 (0.06%) teeth from 12 (2.1%) specimens were malformed. Root number variation was present in 20.3% (403/1,984) of the present maxillary and mandibular first premolar teeth. Eleven (2.0%) foxes had lesions consistent with enamel hypoplasia and 77 (13.8%) had fenestrations in the maxillary alveolar bone. Periodontitis and attrition/abrasion affected the majority of foxes (71.6% and 90.5%, respectively). Nine-hundred and fifty-eight (4.4%) teeth were fractured, a large proportion (41.8%) of which were characterized as complicated crown fractures. Sixty-six periapical lesions from 52 (9.3%) skulls were found. A considerable portion of foxes (5.9%) showed evidence of low-grade temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis. Overall, kit foxes share dental pathology similar to that of the grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)60-72
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Comparative Pathology
Volume167
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2019

Fingerprint

Vulpes
Temporomandibular Joint
foxes
Tooth
teeth
Pathology
Skull
Urocyon cinereoargenteus
skull
lesions (animal)
Dental Enamel Hypoplasia
Supernumerary Tooth
tooth enamel
Deciduous Tooth
Periodontitis
osteoarthritis
Bicuspid
Maxilla
Crowns
young adults

Keywords

  • dental pathology
  • kit fox
  • temporomandibular joint pathology
  • Vulpes macrotis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Dental and Temporomandibular Joint Pathology of the Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis). / Yanagisawa, N.; Wilson, R. E.; Kass, Philip H; Verstraete, Frank J.

In: Journal of Comparative Pathology, Vol. 167, 01.02.2019, p. 60-72.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Skull specimens from 836 kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) were examined macroscopically according to predefined criteria; 559 specimens were included in this study. The study group consisted of 248 (44.4{\%}) females, 267 (47.8{\%}) males and 44 (7.9{\%}) specimens of unknown sex; 128 (22.9{\%}) skulls were from young adults and 431 (77.1{\%}) were from adults. Of the 23,478 possible teeth, 21,883 teeth (93.2{\%}) were present for examination, 45 (1.9{\%}) were absent congenitally, 405 (1.7{\%}) were acquired losses and 1,145 (4.9{\%}) were missing artefactually. No persistent deciduous teeth were observed. Eight (0.04{\%}) supernumerary teeth were found in seven (1.3{\%}) specimens and 13 (0.06{\%}) teeth from 12 (2.1{\%}) specimens were malformed. Root number variation was present in 20.3{\%} (403/1,984) of the present maxillary and mandibular first premolar teeth. Eleven (2.0{\%}) foxes had lesions consistent with enamel hypoplasia and 77 (13.8{\%}) had fenestrations in the maxillary alveolar bone. Periodontitis and attrition/abrasion affected the majority of foxes (71.6{\%} and 90.5{\%}, respectively). Nine-hundred and fifty-eight (4.4{\%}) teeth were fractured, a large proportion (41.8{\%}) of which were characterized as complicated crown fractures. Sixty-six periapical lesions from 52 (9.3{\%}) skulls were found. A considerable portion of foxes (5.9{\%}) showed evidence of low-grade temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis. Overall, kit foxes share dental pathology similar to that of the grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus).",
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