Delayed anesthetic preconditioning protects against myocardial infarction via activation of nuclear factor-κB and upregulation of autophagy

Shigang Qiao, Hong Xie, Chen Wang, Xuemei Wu, Hong Liu, Chunfeng Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations


Purpose: Delayed volatile anesthetic preconditioning (APC) can protect against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury; the delayed phase is called the second window of protection (SWOP), but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is involved in the myocardial protection conferred by APC in the acute phase; autophagy has been reported to confer apoptosis inhibition and infarction reduction. We hypothesized that APC initiates delayed cardioprotection against I/R injury via the activation of NF-kB and upregulation of autophagy, thus attenuating the inflammatory response and apoptosis Methods: After a rat I/R model was set up, left ventricular samples were obtained before I/R to assess NF-κB-DNA binding activity and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and cathepsin B protein expression, and to examine autophagosomes with a transmission electron microscope. Infarct size and the expressions of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and caspase-3 were measured at the end of 2-h reperfusion. Results: The infarct size was significantly reduced in the SWOP group (30 ± 3 %) when compared with that in the I/R group (47 ± 7 %, P < 0.05), and this finding was associated with increased NF-κB-DNA binding activity and autophagosomes. In addition, the expressions of LC3-II and cathepsin B were also up-regulated, and the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, and caspase-3 were attenuated in the SWOP group when compared with the findings in the I/R group. However, this protection was abolished by the administration of parthenolide (PTN) before sevoflurane inhalation, which resulted in an infarct size that was significantly increased (47 ± 5 %, P < 0.05 PTN + SWOP vs. SWOP group). Conclusion: Delayed APC protected the rat heart from I/R injury. The underlying mechanisms may include NF-κB activation, upregulation of autophagy, and the attenuation of TNF-α, IL-1β, and caspase-3 expressions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)251-260
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Anesthesia
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2013


  • Apoptosis
  • Autophagy
  • Ischemia/reperfusion injury
  • Nuclear factor-κB
  • Preconditioning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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