Daily cholecalciferol supplementation during pregnancy alters markers of regulatory immunity, inflammation, and clinical outcomes in a randomized controlled trial

Melissa S. Zerofsky, Bryon N. Jacoby, Theresa L. Pedersen, Charles B. Stephensen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in pregnancy and has been associated with adverse health conditions in mothers and infants. Vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy may support the maintenance of pregnancy by its effects on innate and adaptive immunity. Objective: We assessed the effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on vitamin D status and markers of immune function associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods: We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind intervention of 2 doses of cholecalciferol (400 and 2000 IU/d) from < 20 wk to delivery in 57 pregnant women. Vitamin D status, regulatory and inflammatory T cells, markers of innate immunity and systemic inflammation, and clinical outcomes including maternal blood pressure and birth weight were assessed at 26 and 36 wk of pregnancy. Results: Supplementation with 2000 IU/d vitamin D had a greater effect on the change in vitamin D status over pregnancy (P < 0.0001) and the final value at 36wk (P < 0.0001) than 400 IU/d, increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D from 81.1 nmol/L at baseline to 116 nmol/L at 36 wk and from 69.6 nmol/L at baseline to 85.6 nmol/L at 36 wk, respectively. The 2000-IU/d group had 36% more interleukin-10+ regulatory CD4+ T cells at 36 wk than did the 400-IU/d group (P < 0.007). The daily intake of 2000 compared with 400 IU/d tended to dampen the pregnancy-related increase in diastolic blood pressure by 1.3-fold (P = 0.06) and increase birth weight by 8.6% (P = 0.06), but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Supplementation with 2000 IU/d is more effective at increasing vitamin D status in pregnant women than 400 IU/d and is associated with increased regulatory T cell immunity that may prevent adverse outcomes caused by excess inflammation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01417351.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2388-2397
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume146
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Clinical trial
  • Cytokines
  • Pregnancy
  • T cell
  • Vitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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