Cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and cytokine expression in calves vaccinated with formalin-inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus prior to challenge

Amelia R. Woolums, Robert A. Gunther, Kerrie McArthur-Vaughan, Mark L Anderson, Amanda Omlor, Gabrielle A. Boyle, Kathy E. Friebertshauser, Pat S. McInturff, Laurel J Gershwin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

The development of effective, safe vaccines for human and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been problematic. Inactivated RSV vaccines are of variable efficacy; poor efficacy may be related to induction of ineffective cell-mediated immunity (CMI). To characterize CMI in calves vaccinated with formalin inactivated (FI) BRSV, 11 calves were vaccinated twice with FI-BRSV (n = 5) or mock vaccine (n = 6) at a 2 week interval and challenged 1 month later. Prior to challenge a cannula was placed in the efferent lymphatic of the caudal mediastinal lymph node of each calf; lymph derived lymphocytes (LDL) were collected for analysis of CMI. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity by LDL and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was measured by 51Cr release on days 5, 7, 9, and 10 post-challenge. Messenger RNA for interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-4 was measured on days 0-10 by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of RNA of LDL. BRSV-specific IFN-γ production by PBMC was measured on days 0 and 10 by ELISA. Clinical signs and postmortem changes following challenge were evaluated. There was no difference between groups in clinical signs, postmortem changes, CTL activity, cytokine message expression, or IFN-γ production. For both groups, percentage lysis by CTL peaked on days 7-10 and ranged from 11 to 25%. Failure of vaccination to prevent disease following challenge was likely associated with failure to prime for improved CMI responses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)57-74
Number of pages18
JournalComparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Volume27
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2004

Keywords

  • Bovine cell-mediated immunity
  • Bovine respiratory syncytial virus
  • Cytokines
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocytes
  • Interferon gamma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Immunology
  • Microbiology
  • veterinary(all)

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