Human cyclin G2 together with its closest homolog cyclin G1 defines a novel family of cyclins (Horne, M. C., Goolsby, G. L., Donaldson, K. L., Tran, D., Neubauer, M., and Wahl, A. F. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 6050- 6061). Cyclin G2 is highly expressed in the immune system where immunologic tolerance subjects self-reactive lymphocytes to negative selection and clonal deletion via apoptosis. Here we investigated the effect of growth inhibitory signals on cyclin G2 mRNA abundance in different maturation stage-specific murine B cell lines. Upon treatment of wild-type and p53 null B cell lines with the negative growth factor, transforming growth factor β1, or the growth inhibitory corticosteroid dexamethasone, cyclin G2 mRNA levels were increased in a time-dependent manner 5-14-fold over control cell levels. Unstimulated immature B cell lines (WEHI-231 and CH31) and unstimulated or IgM B cell receptor (BCR)-stimulated mature B cell lines (BAL-17 and CH12) rapidly proliferate and express low levels of cyclin G2 mRNA. In contrast, BCR-stimulated immature B cell lines undergo growth arrest and coincidentally exhibit an ~10-fold increase in cyclin G2 transcripts and a decrease in cyclin D2 message. Costimulation of WEHI-231 and CH31 cells with calcium ionophores and protein kinase C agonists partially mimics anti-IgM stimulation and elicits a strong up-regulation of cyclin G2 mRNA and down- regulation of cyclin D2 mRNA. Signaling mutants of WEHI-231 that are deficient in the phosphoinositide signaling pathway and consequently resistant to the BCR stimulus-induced growth arrest did not display a significant increase in cyclin G2 or decrease in cyclin D2 mRNAs when challenged with anti-IgM antibodies. The two polyclonal activators lipopolysaccharide and soluble gp30, which inhibit the growth arrest response of immature B cells, suppressed cyclin G2 mRNA expression induced by BCR stimulation. These results suggest that in murine B cells responding to growth inhibitory stimuli cyclin G2 may be a key negative regulator of cell cycle progression.
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