We describe the isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding full- length human and murine cyclin G1 and a novel human homologue of this cyclin designated cyclin G2. Cyclin G1 is expressed at high levels in skeletal muscle, ovary, and kidney. Following an initial up-regulation from early G1 to G1/S phase, cyclin G1 mRNA is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle in T and B cell lines. In contrast, in stimulated peripheral T cells, cyclin G1 mRNA is maximal in early G1 phase and declines in cell cycle progression. Cyclin G1 levels parallel p53 expression in murine B lymphocytes; however, in several human Burkitt's lymphomas, murine lymphocytes treated with transforming growth factor-β, early murine embryos, and several tissues of p53 null mice, cyclin G1 levels are either inverse of p53 levels or expressed independent of p53. The cyclin G1 homologue, cyclin G2, exhibits 60% nucleotide sequence identity and 53% amino acid sequence identity with cyclin G1, and like cyclin G1, exhibits closest sequence identity to the cyclin A family. Distinct from cyclin G1, the amino acid sequence for cyclin G2 shows a PEST-rich sequence and a potential Shc PTB binding site. Cyclin G2 mRNA is differentially expressed compared to cyclin G1, the highest transcript levels seen in cerebellum, thymus, spleen, prostate, and kidney. In contrast to the constitutive expression of cyclin G1 in lymphocytes, cyclin G2 mRNA appears to oscillate through the cell cycle with peak expression in late S phase.
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