Cumulative racing-speed exercise distance cluster as a risk factor for fatal musculoskeletal injury in Thoroughbred racehorses in California

Leah Estberg, Ian Gardner, Susan M Stover, Bill J. Johnson, James Case, Alex Ardans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

66 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Thoroughbred racehorses which suffered a fatal musculoskeletal injury (FMI) while racing or race training at a California racetrack during 9 months of 1991 were studied to determine the importance of intensive, high-speed exercise schedules prior to injury. Seventy-seven horses which sustained an FMI while racing and 45 horses which sustained an FMI while race training were successfully matched by race or timed workout session with one control horse and included in the analyses. Race and timed workout (racing-speed exercise) histories were obtained for the case and control horses. Two-month cumulative, racing-speed cutoff distances were calculated from the control horse sample by two methods. Median racing-speed exercise frequencies and distances of the control horses were used to estimate age-specific (2, 3, 4 and ≥ 5 years), 2-month cumulative, racing-speed distances (Method 1). For the second method, the last race or timed workout for each control horse occurring just prior to, or on the date of injury for the matched case horse was identified. Cumulative racing-speed distances 2 months prior to these exercise events were determined for each control horse and used to estimate median age-specific (2, 3, 4 and ≥ 5 years), 2-month cumulative racing-speed distances (Method 2). The cumulative cutoff distances estimated from both methods were used to classify each matched pair according to the presence or absence of a 2-month cumulative, racing-speed distance which exceeded the age-appropriate cutoff distance (exercise distance cluster) within 6 months prior to injury. Manlel-Haenszel matched-pair odds ratios and 95% confidence limits were calculated separately for the racing and race-training fatal injuries. The relative risk for racing FMI was significantly greater for those horses which ran 2-month, cumulative racing and timed workout distances in excess of the cutoff values determined with Method 1 (relative risk (RR) = 3.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2, 7.6) and Method 2 (RR = 7.2, 95% CI = 2.6, 20.6). The relative risk for race-training FMI was significantly greater for those horses which ran 2-month, cumulative racing and timed workout distances in excess of the cutoff values determined with Method 2 (RR = 3.4, 95% CI =1.0, 13.2).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)253-263
Number of pages11
JournalPreventive Veterinary Medicine
Volume24
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1995

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racehorses
Horses
exercise
risk factors
Exercise
horses
Wounds and Injuries
relative risk
confidence interval
Confidence Intervals
methodology
odds ratio
Appointments and Schedules
Odds Ratio

Keywords

  • Epidemiology
  • Equine
  • Exercise
  • Injury
  • Thoroughbred

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Food Animals

Cite this

@article{5a6a82b4ca1949d8ac29e8d8b14e331c,
title = "Cumulative racing-speed exercise distance cluster as a risk factor for fatal musculoskeletal injury in Thoroughbred racehorses in California",
abstract = "Thoroughbred racehorses which suffered a fatal musculoskeletal injury (FMI) while racing or race training at a California racetrack during 9 months of 1991 were studied to determine the importance of intensive, high-speed exercise schedules prior to injury. Seventy-seven horses which sustained an FMI while racing and 45 horses which sustained an FMI while race training were successfully matched by race or timed workout session with one control horse and included in the analyses. Race and timed workout (racing-speed exercise) histories were obtained for the case and control horses. Two-month cumulative, racing-speed cutoff distances were calculated from the control horse sample by two methods. Median racing-speed exercise frequencies and distances of the control horses were used to estimate age-specific (2, 3, 4 and ≥ 5 years), 2-month cumulative, racing-speed distances (Method 1). For the second method, the last race or timed workout for each control horse occurring just prior to, or on the date of injury for the matched case horse was identified. Cumulative racing-speed distances 2 months prior to these exercise events were determined for each control horse and used to estimate median age-specific (2, 3, 4 and ≥ 5 years), 2-month cumulative racing-speed distances (Method 2). The cumulative cutoff distances estimated from both methods were used to classify each matched pair according to the presence or absence of a 2-month cumulative, racing-speed distance which exceeded the age-appropriate cutoff distance (exercise distance cluster) within 6 months prior to injury. Manlel-Haenszel matched-pair odds ratios and 95{\%} confidence limits were calculated separately for the racing and race-training fatal injuries. The relative risk for racing FMI was significantly greater for those horses which ran 2-month, cumulative racing and timed workout distances in excess of the cutoff values determined with Method 1 (relative risk (RR) = 3.0, 95{\%} confidence interval (CI) = 1.2, 7.6) and Method 2 (RR = 7.2, 95{\%} CI = 2.6, 20.6). The relative risk for race-training FMI was significantly greater for those horses which ran 2-month, cumulative racing and timed workout distances in excess of the cutoff values determined with Method 2 (RR = 3.4, 95{\%} CI =1.0, 13.2).",
keywords = "Epidemiology, Equine, Exercise, Injury, Thoroughbred",
author = "Leah Estberg and Ian Gardner and Stover, {Susan M} and Johnson, {Bill J.} and James Case and Alex Ardans",
year = "1995",
doi = "10.1016/0167-5877(95)00489-J",
language = "English (US)",
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journal = "Preventive Veterinary Medicine",
issn = "0167-5877",
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T1 - Cumulative racing-speed exercise distance cluster as a risk factor for fatal musculoskeletal injury in Thoroughbred racehorses in California

AU - Estberg, Leah

AU - Gardner, Ian

AU - Stover, Susan M

AU - Johnson, Bill J.

AU - Case, James

AU - Ardans, Alex

PY - 1995

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N2 - Thoroughbred racehorses which suffered a fatal musculoskeletal injury (FMI) while racing or race training at a California racetrack during 9 months of 1991 were studied to determine the importance of intensive, high-speed exercise schedules prior to injury. Seventy-seven horses which sustained an FMI while racing and 45 horses which sustained an FMI while race training were successfully matched by race or timed workout session with one control horse and included in the analyses. Race and timed workout (racing-speed exercise) histories were obtained for the case and control horses. Two-month cumulative, racing-speed cutoff distances were calculated from the control horse sample by two methods. Median racing-speed exercise frequencies and distances of the control horses were used to estimate age-specific (2, 3, 4 and ≥ 5 years), 2-month cumulative, racing-speed distances (Method 1). For the second method, the last race or timed workout for each control horse occurring just prior to, or on the date of injury for the matched case horse was identified. Cumulative racing-speed distances 2 months prior to these exercise events were determined for each control horse and used to estimate median age-specific (2, 3, 4 and ≥ 5 years), 2-month cumulative racing-speed distances (Method 2). The cumulative cutoff distances estimated from both methods were used to classify each matched pair according to the presence or absence of a 2-month cumulative, racing-speed distance which exceeded the age-appropriate cutoff distance (exercise distance cluster) within 6 months prior to injury. Manlel-Haenszel matched-pair odds ratios and 95% confidence limits were calculated separately for the racing and race-training fatal injuries. The relative risk for racing FMI was significantly greater for those horses which ran 2-month, cumulative racing and timed workout distances in excess of the cutoff values determined with Method 1 (relative risk (RR) = 3.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2, 7.6) and Method 2 (RR = 7.2, 95% CI = 2.6, 20.6). The relative risk for race-training FMI was significantly greater for those horses which ran 2-month, cumulative racing and timed workout distances in excess of the cutoff values determined with Method 2 (RR = 3.4, 95% CI =1.0, 13.2).

AB - Thoroughbred racehorses which suffered a fatal musculoskeletal injury (FMI) while racing or race training at a California racetrack during 9 months of 1991 were studied to determine the importance of intensive, high-speed exercise schedules prior to injury. Seventy-seven horses which sustained an FMI while racing and 45 horses which sustained an FMI while race training were successfully matched by race or timed workout session with one control horse and included in the analyses. Race and timed workout (racing-speed exercise) histories were obtained for the case and control horses. Two-month cumulative, racing-speed cutoff distances were calculated from the control horse sample by two methods. Median racing-speed exercise frequencies and distances of the control horses were used to estimate age-specific (2, 3, 4 and ≥ 5 years), 2-month cumulative, racing-speed distances (Method 1). For the second method, the last race or timed workout for each control horse occurring just prior to, or on the date of injury for the matched case horse was identified. Cumulative racing-speed distances 2 months prior to these exercise events were determined for each control horse and used to estimate median age-specific (2, 3, 4 and ≥ 5 years), 2-month cumulative racing-speed distances (Method 2). The cumulative cutoff distances estimated from both methods were used to classify each matched pair according to the presence or absence of a 2-month cumulative, racing-speed distance which exceeded the age-appropriate cutoff distance (exercise distance cluster) within 6 months prior to injury. Manlel-Haenszel matched-pair odds ratios and 95% confidence limits were calculated separately for the racing and race-training fatal injuries. The relative risk for racing FMI was significantly greater for those horses which ran 2-month, cumulative racing and timed workout distances in excess of the cutoff values determined with Method 1 (relative risk (RR) = 3.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2, 7.6) and Method 2 (RR = 7.2, 95% CI = 2.6, 20.6). The relative risk for race-training FMI was significantly greater for those horses which ran 2-month, cumulative racing and timed workout distances in excess of the cutoff values determined with Method 2 (RR = 3.4, 95% CI =1.0, 13.2).

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