Cryopreservation of spermatozoa from cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

Theodore L Tollner, C. A. VandeVoort, J. W. Overstreet, E. Z. Drobnis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

68 Scopus citations


Three egg-yolk diluents, which have been used successfully in cryopreservation of human spermatozoa, were compared for their ability to protect macaque semen against cryodamage. TEST (Tes + Tris + egg yolk), TEST with 20% skim milk (TSM), and egg yolk-citrate (EYC), each with 3 or 5% glycerol were compared using 12 ejaculates from 6 male cynomolgus macaques. Computed-aided analysis of sperm motion was used to determine the percentage motility (%M), curvilinear velocity (VCL), and linearity (LIN) of spermatozoa after thawing. The supravital stain Hoechst 33258 and a fluoresceinated pea lectin were used to determine the % of viable spermatozoa with intact acrosomes. TSM and TEST were superior to EYC in terms of %M and of % viable, acrosome-intact spermatozoa. TSM and TEST produced equivalent VCL and LIN values, while EYC had clearly reduced VCL and LIN. There were no interactions between diluent and glycerol level. The 3% glycerol level gave superior results to 5% glycerol for %M. EYC, which is widely used for cryopreservation of human spermatozoa, was not suitable for cynomolgus monkey semen. Artificial insemination with semen cryopreserved in TSM resulted in a healthy, full-term infant.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)347-352
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Reproduction and Fertility
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1990


  • Acrosome
  • Cryopreservation
  • Macaques
  • Motility
  • Spermatozoa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Embryology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Physiology


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