Cross-diagnostic analysis of cognitive control in mental illness: Insights from the CNTRACS consortium

Jason Smucny, Deanna M. Barch, James M. Gold, Milton E. Strauss, Angus W. MacDonald, Megan A. Boudewyn, John D Ragland, Steven M. Silverstein, Cameron S Carter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: In recent years, psychiatry research has increasingly focused on understanding mental illnesses from a cross-diagnostic, dimensional perspective in order to better align their neurocognitive features with underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In this multi-site study, we examined two measures of cognitive control (d-prime context and lapsing rate) during the Dot Probe Expectancy (DPX) version of the AX-Continuous Performance Task in patients with either schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SZ-A), or Type I bipolar disorder (BD) as well as healthy control (HC) subjects. We hypothesized significantly lower d-prime context and higher lapsing rate in SZ and SZ-A patients and intermediate levels in BD patients relative to HC. Methods: 72 HC, 84 SZ, 77 SZ-A, and 58 BD patients (ages 18–56) were included in the final study sample. Results: Significant main effects of diagnosis were observed on d-prime context (F(3,279) = 9.59, p < 0.001) and lapsing (F(3,279) = 8.08, p < 0.001). A priori linear contrasts suggesting intermediate dysfunction in BD patients were significant (p < 0.001), although post-hoc tests showed the BD group was only significantly different from HC on d-prime context. Group results for d-prime context remained significant after covarying for lapsing rate. Primary behavioral measures were associated with mania and disorganization symptoms as well as everyday functioning. Conclusions: These findings suggest a continuum of dysfunction in cognitive control (particularly d-prime context) across diagnostic categories in psychiatric illness. These results further suggest that lapsing and d-prime context, while related, make unique contributions towards explaining deficits in cognitive control in these disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalSchizophrenia Research
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Bipolar Disorder
Schizophrenia
Psychiatry
Task Performance and Analysis
Psychotic Disorders
Healthy Volunteers
Research

Keywords

  • Ax-cpt
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Cognitive control
  • D-prime context
  • Schizoaffective disorder
  • Schizophrenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry

Cite this

Cross-diagnostic analysis of cognitive control in mental illness : Insights from the CNTRACS consortium. / Smucny, Jason; Barch, Deanna M.; Gold, James M.; Strauss, Milton E.; MacDonald, Angus W.; Boudewyn, Megan A.; Ragland, John D; Silverstein, Steven M.; Carter, Cameron S.

In: Schizophrenia Research, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Smucny, Jason ; Barch, Deanna M. ; Gold, James M. ; Strauss, Milton E. ; MacDonald, Angus W. ; Boudewyn, Megan A. ; Ragland, John D ; Silverstein, Steven M. ; Carter, Cameron S. / Cross-diagnostic analysis of cognitive control in mental illness : Insights from the CNTRACS consortium. In: Schizophrenia Research. 2019.
@article{ee6cf64eae6e4060816d50587e507538,
title = "Cross-diagnostic analysis of cognitive control in mental illness: Insights from the CNTRACS consortium",
abstract = "Background: In recent years, psychiatry research has increasingly focused on understanding mental illnesses from a cross-diagnostic, dimensional perspective in order to better align their neurocognitive features with underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In this multi-site study, we examined two measures of cognitive control (d-prime context and lapsing rate) during the Dot Probe Expectancy (DPX) version of the AX-Continuous Performance Task in patients with either schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SZ-A), or Type I bipolar disorder (BD) as well as healthy control (HC) subjects. We hypothesized significantly lower d-prime context and higher lapsing rate in SZ and SZ-A patients and intermediate levels in BD patients relative to HC. Methods: 72 HC, 84 SZ, 77 SZ-A, and 58 BD patients (ages 18–56) were included in the final study sample. Results: Significant main effects of diagnosis were observed on d-prime context (F(3,279) = 9.59, p < 0.001) and lapsing (F(3,279) = 8.08, p < 0.001). A priori linear contrasts suggesting intermediate dysfunction in BD patients were significant (p < 0.001), although post-hoc tests showed the BD group was only significantly different from HC on d-prime context. Group results for d-prime context remained significant after covarying for lapsing rate. Primary behavioral measures were associated with mania and disorganization symptoms as well as everyday functioning. Conclusions: These findings suggest a continuum of dysfunction in cognitive control (particularly d-prime context) across diagnostic categories in psychiatric illness. These results further suggest that lapsing and d-prime context, while related, make unique contributions towards explaining deficits in cognitive control in these disorders.",
keywords = "Ax-cpt, Bipolar disorder, Cognitive control, D-prime context, Schizoaffective disorder, Schizophrenia",
author = "Jason Smucny and Barch, {Deanna M.} and Gold, {James M.} and Strauss, {Milton E.} and MacDonald, {Angus W.} and Boudewyn, {Megan A.} and Ragland, {John D} and Silverstein, {Steven M.} and Carter, {Cameron S}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.schres.2019.01.018",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Schizophrenia Research",
issn = "0920-9964",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cross-diagnostic analysis of cognitive control in mental illness

T2 - Insights from the CNTRACS consortium

AU - Smucny, Jason

AU - Barch, Deanna M.

AU - Gold, James M.

AU - Strauss, Milton E.

AU - MacDonald, Angus W.

AU - Boudewyn, Megan A.

AU - Ragland, John D

AU - Silverstein, Steven M.

AU - Carter, Cameron S

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Background: In recent years, psychiatry research has increasingly focused on understanding mental illnesses from a cross-diagnostic, dimensional perspective in order to better align their neurocognitive features with underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In this multi-site study, we examined two measures of cognitive control (d-prime context and lapsing rate) during the Dot Probe Expectancy (DPX) version of the AX-Continuous Performance Task in patients with either schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SZ-A), or Type I bipolar disorder (BD) as well as healthy control (HC) subjects. We hypothesized significantly lower d-prime context and higher lapsing rate in SZ and SZ-A patients and intermediate levels in BD patients relative to HC. Methods: 72 HC, 84 SZ, 77 SZ-A, and 58 BD patients (ages 18–56) were included in the final study sample. Results: Significant main effects of diagnosis were observed on d-prime context (F(3,279) = 9.59, p < 0.001) and lapsing (F(3,279) = 8.08, p < 0.001). A priori linear contrasts suggesting intermediate dysfunction in BD patients were significant (p < 0.001), although post-hoc tests showed the BD group was only significantly different from HC on d-prime context. Group results for d-prime context remained significant after covarying for lapsing rate. Primary behavioral measures were associated with mania and disorganization symptoms as well as everyday functioning. Conclusions: These findings suggest a continuum of dysfunction in cognitive control (particularly d-prime context) across diagnostic categories in psychiatric illness. These results further suggest that lapsing and d-prime context, while related, make unique contributions towards explaining deficits in cognitive control in these disorders.

AB - Background: In recent years, psychiatry research has increasingly focused on understanding mental illnesses from a cross-diagnostic, dimensional perspective in order to better align their neurocognitive features with underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In this multi-site study, we examined two measures of cognitive control (d-prime context and lapsing rate) during the Dot Probe Expectancy (DPX) version of the AX-Continuous Performance Task in patients with either schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SZ-A), or Type I bipolar disorder (BD) as well as healthy control (HC) subjects. We hypothesized significantly lower d-prime context and higher lapsing rate in SZ and SZ-A patients and intermediate levels in BD patients relative to HC. Methods: 72 HC, 84 SZ, 77 SZ-A, and 58 BD patients (ages 18–56) were included in the final study sample. Results: Significant main effects of diagnosis were observed on d-prime context (F(3,279) = 9.59, p < 0.001) and lapsing (F(3,279) = 8.08, p < 0.001). A priori linear contrasts suggesting intermediate dysfunction in BD patients were significant (p < 0.001), although post-hoc tests showed the BD group was only significantly different from HC on d-prime context. Group results for d-prime context remained significant after covarying for lapsing rate. Primary behavioral measures were associated with mania and disorganization symptoms as well as everyday functioning. Conclusions: These findings suggest a continuum of dysfunction in cognitive control (particularly d-prime context) across diagnostic categories in psychiatric illness. These results further suggest that lapsing and d-prime context, while related, make unique contributions towards explaining deficits in cognitive control in these disorders.

KW - Ax-cpt

KW - Bipolar disorder

KW - Cognitive control

KW - D-prime context

KW - Schizoaffective disorder

KW - Schizophrenia

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85060552555&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85060552555&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.schres.2019.01.018

DO - 10.1016/j.schres.2019.01.018

M3 - Article

C2 - 30704863

AN - SCOPUS:85060552555

JO - Schizophrenia Research

JF - Schizophrenia Research

SN - 0920-9964

ER -