The central nervous system is a highly plastic network of cells that constantly adjusts its functions to environmental stimuli throughout life. Transcription-dependent mechanisms modify neuronal properties to respond to external stimuli regulating numerous developmental functions, such as cell survival and differentiation, and physiological functions such as learning, memory, and circadian rhythmicity. The discovery and cloning of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive element binding protein (CREB) constituted a big step toward deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal plasticity. CREB was first discovered in learning and memory studies as a crucial mediator of activity-dependent changes in target gene expression that in turn impose long-lasting modifications of the structure and function of neurons. In this chapter, we review the molecular and signaling mechanisms of neural activity-dependent recruitment of CREB and its cofactors. We discuss the crosstalk between signaling pathways that imprints diverse spatiotemporal patterns of CREB activation allowing for the integration of a wide variety of stimuli.