Background: OSA, a common comorbidity in interstitial lung disease (ILD), could contribute to a worsened course if untreated. It is unclear if adherence to CPAP therapy improves outcomes. Research Question: Does adherence to CPAP therapy improve outcomes in patients with concurrent interstitial lung disease and OSA? Study Design and Methods: We conducted a 10-year retrospective observational multicenter cohort study, assessing adult patients with ILD who had undergone polysomnography. Subjects were categorized based on OSA severity into no/mild OSA (apnea-hypopnea index score < 15) or moderate/severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index score ≥ 15). All subjects prescribed and adherent to CPAP were deemed to have treated OSA. Cox regression models were used to examine the association of OSA severity and CPAP adherence with all-cause mortality risk and progression-free survival (PFS). Results: Of 160 subjects that met inclusion criteria, 131 had OSA and were prescribed CPAP. Sixty-six patients (41%) had no/mild untreated OSA, 51 (32%) had moderate/severe untreated OSA, and 43 (27%) had treated OSA. Subjects with no/mild untreated OSA did not differ from those with moderate/severe untreated OSA in mean survival time (127 ± 56 vs 138 ± 93 months, respectively; P = .61) and crude mortality rate (2.9 per 100 person-years vs 2.9 per 100 person-years, respectively; P = .60). Adherence to CPAP was not associated with improvement in all-cause mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.1; 95% CI, 0.4-2.9; P = .79) or PFS (HR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.5-1.5; P = .66) compared with those that were nonadherent or untreated. Among subjects requiring supplemental oxygen, those adherent to CPAP had improved PFS (HR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9; P = .03) compared with nonadherent or untreated subjects. Interpretation: Neither OSA severity nor adherence to CPAP was associated with improved outcomes in patients with ILD except those requiring supplemental oxygen.
- interstitial lung disease
- sleep apnea
- sleep-disordered breathing
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine