Copper, lysyl oxidase, and extracellular matrix protein cross-linking

Robert B. Rucker, Taru Kosonen, Michael S. Clegg, Alyson E. Mitchell, Brian R. Rucker, Janet Y. Uriu-Hare, Carl L Keen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

254 Scopus citations


Protein-lysine 6-oxidase (lysyl oxidase) is a cuproenzyme that is essential for stabilization of extracellular matrixes, specifically the enzymatic cross-linking of collagen and elastin. A hypothesis is proposed that links dietary copper levels to dynamic and proportional changes in lysyl oxidase activity in connective tissue. Although nutritional copper status does not influence the accumulation of lysyl oxidase as protein or lysyl oxidase steady state messenger RNA concentrations, the direct influence of dietary copper on the functional activity of lysyl oxidase is clear. The hypothesis is based on the possibility that copper efflux and lysyl oxidase secretion from cells may share a common pathway. The change in functional activity is most likely the result of posttranslational processing of lysyl oxidase. Copper is essential for organic cofactor formation in amine oxidases such as lysyl oxidase. Copper-containing amine oxidases have peptidyl 2,4,5 tri(oxo)phenylalanine (TOPA) at their active centers. TOPA is formed by copper-catalyzed oxidation of tyrosine, which takes place as part of Golgi or trans-Golgi processing. For lysyl oxidase, recent evidence (Science 1996;273:1078-84) indicates that as an additional step, a lysyl group at the active center of lysyl oxidase reacts with TOPA or its precursor to form lysyl tyrosylquinone.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number5 SUPPL.
StatePublished - 1998


  • Collagen
  • Copper
  • Elastin
  • Extracellular matrix
  • Golgi complex
  • Lysyl oxidase
  • Protein cross-linking
  • Protein-lysine 6-oxidase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science


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