In this review, we present and summarize data from recently conducted research regarding controversial aspects of the management of children with bronchiolitis. These data suggest that chronic medical history, gestational age at birth, postnatal age, and physiological variables can identify those children at higher risk for a more severe course of bronchiolitis. Large prospective studies also suggest that the likelihood of significant bacterial illness in febrile infants with bronchiolitis may be lower than in children without bronchiolitis. Nevertheless, urinary tract infections remain relatively common in young febrile children with bronchiolitis. Lastly and unfortunately, the data note a relative lack of effective therapies for children with bronchiolitis, although certain therapies such as systemic corticosteroids show potential efficacy and are in need of further study. The remaining uncertainty surrounding many issues pertaining to bronchiolitis highlight the need for more research aimed to: (1) develop prognostic models to identify patients at risk for a more severe clinical course, (2) develop generalizable diagnostic models to identify febrile infants with bronchiolitis at high and very low risk of significant bacterial illness, and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of promising therapies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Emergency Medicine
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health