Contribution of propylene glycol-induced Heinz body formation to anemia in cats.

Mary M Christopher, V. Perman, J. W. Eaton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

40 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Propylene glycol (PG) is a common preservative and source of synthetic carbohydrates in soft-moist pet foods. Propylene glycol was fed to cats for 5 weeks at concentrations found in commercial diets (1.6 g/kg of body weight; 12% of diet on a dry-weight basis) and for 3 weeks at concentrations exceeding usual intake (8 g/kg; 41% of diet). There was a dose-dependent increase in Heinz body percentage to 28% in cats fed the low dose of PG and to 92% in cats fed the high dose. Erythrocyte half-life, measured using [14C]-cyanate hemoglobin (Hb), decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) by 18.8% and 60% in cats fed the low and high PG doses, respectively. The PCV in cats fed the low dose was unaffected, whereas cats fed the high dose had a mean (+/- SEM) decrease in PCV from 33.5 +/- 1.05% to 26.3 +/- 1.45%, accompanied by punctate reticulocytosis and bone marrow erythroid hyperplasia. A dose-dependent increase in iron pigment was found in the liver and spleen of all cats. In cats fed the low dose of PG, erythrocyte reduced glutathione concentration actually increased from 7.02 +/- 0.56 to 9.74 +/- 0.69 mumol/g of Hb, but decreased to 2.96 +/- 0.27 mumol/g of Hb in cats fed the high dose. There was no significant increase in methemoglobin concentration. These results indicated that PG cannot be considered innocuous even at concentrations consumed by cats eating commercial diets. Heinz body-induced acceleration of RBC destruction develops in a dose-dependent manner, so that cats with greater food intake, ie, lactating queens and nursing kittens, are at greater risk for development of PG-induced Heinz body hemolytic anemia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1045-1056
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Volume194
Issue number8
StatePublished - Apr 15 1989
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Heinz Bodies
Propylene Glycol
propylene glycol
anemia
Anemia
Cats
cats
dosage
Diet
hemoglobin
Hemoglobins
erythrocytes
diet
cyanates
Eating
Erythrocytes
Reticulocytosis
Cyanates
pet foods
Methemoglobin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Contribution of propylene glycol-induced Heinz body formation to anemia in cats. / Christopher, Mary M; Perman, V.; Eaton, J. W.

In: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 194, No. 8, 15.04.1989, p. 1045-1056.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Propylene glycol (PG) is a common preservative and source of synthetic carbohydrates in soft-moist pet foods. Propylene glycol was fed to cats for 5 weeks at concentrations found in commercial diets (1.6 g/kg of body weight; 12{\%} of diet on a dry-weight basis) and for 3 weeks at concentrations exceeding usual intake (8 g/kg; 41{\%} of diet). There was a dose-dependent increase in Heinz body percentage to 28{\%} in cats fed the low dose of PG and to 92{\%} in cats fed the high dose. Erythrocyte half-life, measured using [14C]-cyanate hemoglobin (Hb), decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) by 18.8{\%} and 60{\%} in cats fed the low and high PG doses, respectively. The PCV in cats fed the low dose was unaffected, whereas cats fed the high dose had a mean (+/- SEM) decrease in PCV from 33.5 +/- 1.05{\%} to 26.3 +/- 1.45{\%}, accompanied by punctate reticulocytosis and bone marrow erythroid hyperplasia. A dose-dependent increase in iron pigment was found in the liver and spleen of all cats. In cats fed the low dose of PG, erythrocyte reduced glutathione concentration actually increased from 7.02 +/- 0.56 to 9.74 +/- 0.69 mumol/g of Hb, but decreased to 2.96 +/- 0.27 mumol/g of Hb in cats fed the high dose. There was no significant increase in methemoglobin concentration. These results indicated that PG cannot be considered innocuous even at concentrations consumed by cats eating commercial diets. Heinz body-induced acceleration of RBC destruction develops in a dose-dependent manner, so that cats with greater food intake, ie, lactating queens and nursing kittens, are at greater risk for development of PG-induced Heinz body hemolytic anemia.",
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