Contemporary reconstruction after complex facial trauma

Matthew R. Zeiderman, Lee L.Q. Pu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Complex facial trauma requires complex repair and solutions. This process is challenging for the surgeon who seeks to manage the expectations of the patient and family while achieving the best possible result. Historically, the use of pedicled flaps, and then free tissue transfer, were the primary techniques utilized. Advancements in soft-tissue reconstruction, such as perforator flaps and pre-expanded and prefabricated flaps, allow refinement of the soft-tissue reconstruction process to create the best initial soft-tissue coverage. The advent of contemporary technologies, such as virtual surgical planning, stereolithography and customized implants and plates, facilitates a tailored approach to the patient’s reconstructive needs for precise bony reconstruction. When surgical and technological techniques are combined in complementary multistage reconstructions, better reconstructive and aesthetic outcomes are achievable than ever before. In this review, the authors present a summary of the management of complex facial trauma based on the senior author’s broad experience. Initial management and contemporary reconstructive techniques and technology to provide optimal outcomes are reviewed. A case series of complex facial traumas and their reconstructive process is also presented to demonstrate how complementary staged procedures can yield an optimal result. We believe the reconstructive surgeon managing complex facial trauma should strive to incorporate contemporary technologies and techniques into their armamentarium to provide the best patient care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberTKAA003
JournalBurns and Trauma
StatePublished - 2020


  • Facial reconstruction
  • Facial skeletal reconstruction
  • Facial trauma
  • Soft-tissue reconstruction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Emergency Medicine
  • Surgery
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Dermatology
  • Immunology and Allergy


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