Consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup increase postprandial triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein-B in young men and women

Kimber Stanhope, Andrew A. Bremer, Valentina Medici, Katsuyuki Nakajima, Yasuki Ito, Takamitsu Nakano, Guoxia Chen, Tak Hou Fong, Vivien Lee, Roseanne I. Menorca, Nancy L. Keim, Peter J Havel

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Abstract

Context: The American Heart Association Nutrition Committee recommends women and men consume no more than 100 and 150 kcal of added sugar per day, respectively, whereas the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, suggests a maximal added sugar intake of 25% or less of total energy. Objective: To address this discrepancy, we compared the effects of consuming glucose, fructose, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) at 25% of energy requirements (E) on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Participants, Design and Setting, and Intervention: Forty-eight adults (aged 18-40 yr; body mass index 18-35 kg/m 2) resided at the Clinical Research Center for 3.5 d of baseline testing while consuming energy-balanced diets containing55%E complex carbohydrate. For 12 outpatient days, they consumed usual ad libitum diets along with three servings per day of glucose, fructose, or HFCS-sweetened beverages (n = 16/group), which provided 25% E requirements. Subjects then consumed energy-balanced diets containing 25% E sugar-sweetened beverages/30% E complex carbohydrate during 3.5 d of inpatient intervention testing. Main Outcome Measures: Twenty-four-hour triglyceride area under the curve, fasting plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and apolipoprotein B (apoB) concentrations were measured. Results: Twenty-four-hour triglyceride area under the curve was increased compared with baseline during consumption of fructose (+4.7 ± 1.2 mmol/liter x 24 h, P = 0.0032) and HFCS (+1.8 ± 1.4 mmol/liter x 24 h, P = 0.035) but not glucose (-1.9 ± 0.9 mmol/liter x 24 h, P = 0.14). Fasting LDL and apoB concentrations were increased during consumption of fructose (LDL: +0.29 ± 0.082 mmol/liter, P = 0.0023; apoB: +0.093 ± 0.022 g/liter, P = 0.0005) and HFCS (LDL: +0.42 ± 0.11 mmol/liter, P < 0.0001; apoB: +0.12 ± 0.031 g/liter, P < 0.0001) but not glucose (LDL: +0.012 ± 0.071 mmol/liter, P = 0.86; apoB: +0.0097 ± 0.019 g/liter, P = 0.90). Conclusions: Consumption of HFCS-sweetened beverages for 2 wk at 25% E increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease comparably with fructose and more than glucose in young adults.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume96
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2011

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Apolipoproteins B
Fructose
LDL Lipoproteins
LDL Cholesterol
Nutrition
Triglycerides
Beverages
Glucose
Sugars
Diet
Area Under Curve
Fasting
Cardiovascular Diseases
Carbohydrates
Nutrition Policy
Testing
Inpatients
Young Adult
Body Mass Index
Outpatients

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup increase postprandial triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein-B in young men and women. / Stanhope, Kimber; Bremer, Andrew A.; Medici, Valentina; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Ito, Yasuki; Nakano, Takamitsu; Chen, Guoxia; Fong, Tak Hou; Lee, Vivien; Menorca, Roseanne I.; Keim, Nancy L.; Havel, Peter J.

In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 96, No. 10, 10.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Stanhope, Kimber ; Bremer, Andrew A. ; Medici, Valentina ; Nakajima, Katsuyuki ; Ito, Yasuki ; Nakano, Takamitsu ; Chen, Guoxia ; Fong, Tak Hou ; Lee, Vivien ; Menorca, Roseanne I. ; Keim, Nancy L. ; Havel, Peter J. / Consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup increase postprandial triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein-B in young men and women. In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2011 ; Vol. 96, No. 10.
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title = "Consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup increase postprandial triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein-B in young men and women",
abstract = "Context: The American Heart Association Nutrition Committee recommends women and men consume no more than 100 and 150 kcal of added sugar per day, respectively, whereas the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, suggests a maximal added sugar intake of 25{\%} or less of total energy. Objective: To address this discrepancy, we compared the effects of consuming glucose, fructose, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) at 25{\%} of energy requirements (E) on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Participants, Design and Setting, and Intervention: Forty-eight adults (aged 18-40 yr; body mass index 18-35 kg/m 2) resided at the Clinical Research Center for 3.5 d of baseline testing while consuming energy-balanced diets containing55{\%}E complex carbohydrate. For 12 outpatient days, they consumed usual ad libitum diets along with three servings per day of glucose, fructose, or HFCS-sweetened beverages (n = 16/group), which provided 25{\%} E requirements. Subjects then consumed energy-balanced diets containing 25{\%} E sugar-sweetened beverages/30{\%} E complex carbohydrate during 3.5 d of inpatient intervention testing. Main Outcome Measures: Twenty-four-hour triglyceride area under the curve, fasting plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and apolipoprotein B (apoB) concentrations were measured. Results: Twenty-four-hour triglyceride area under the curve was increased compared with baseline during consumption of fructose (+4.7 ± 1.2 mmol/liter x 24 h, P = 0.0032) and HFCS (+1.8 ± 1.4 mmol/liter x 24 h, P = 0.035) but not glucose (-1.9 ± 0.9 mmol/liter x 24 h, P = 0.14). Fasting LDL and apoB concentrations were increased during consumption of fructose (LDL: +0.29 ± 0.082 mmol/liter, P = 0.0023; apoB: +0.093 ± 0.022 g/liter, P = 0.0005) and HFCS (LDL: +0.42 ± 0.11 mmol/liter, P < 0.0001; apoB: +0.12 ± 0.031 g/liter, P < 0.0001) but not glucose (LDL: +0.012 ± 0.071 mmol/liter, P = 0.86; apoB: +0.0097 ± 0.019 g/liter, P = 0.90). Conclusions: Consumption of HFCS-sweetened beverages for 2 wk at 25{\%} E increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease comparably with fructose and more than glucose in young adults.",
author = "Kimber Stanhope and Bremer, {Andrew A.} and Valentina Medici and Katsuyuki Nakajima and Yasuki Ito and Takamitsu Nakano and Guoxia Chen and Fong, {Tak Hou} and Vivien Lee and Menorca, {Roseanne I.} and Keim, {Nancy L.} and Havel, {Peter J}",
year = "2011",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1210/jc.2011-1251",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "96",
journal = "Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism",
issn = "0021-972X",
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T1 - Consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup increase postprandial triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein-B in young men and women

AU - Stanhope, Kimber

AU - Bremer, Andrew A.

AU - Medici, Valentina

AU - Nakajima, Katsuyuki

AU - Ito, Yasuki

AU - Nakano, Takamitsu

AU - Chen, Guoxia

AU - Fong, Tak Hou

AU - Lee, Vivien

AU - Menorca, Roseanne I.

AU - Keim, Nancy L.

AU - Havel, Peter J

PY - 2011/10

Y1 - 2011/10

N2 - Context: The American Heart Association Nutrition Committee recommends women and men consume no more than 100 and 150 kcal of added sugar per day, respectively, whereas the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, suggests a maximal added sugar intake of 25% or less of total energy. Objective: To address this discrepancy, we compared the effects of consuming glucose, fructose, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) at 25% of energy requirements (E) on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Participants, Design and Setting, and Intervention: Forty-eight adults (aged 18-40 yr; body mass index 18-35 kg/m 2) resided at the Clinical Research Center for 3.5 d of baseline testing while consuming energy-balanced diets containing55%E complex carbohydrate. For 12 outpatient days, they consumed usual ad libitum diets along with three servings per day of glucose, fructose, or HFCS-sweetened beverages (n = 16/group), which provided 25% E requirements. Subjects then consumed energy-balanced diets containing 25% E sugar-sweetened beverages/30% E complex carbohydrate during 3.5 d of inpatient intervention testing. Main Outcome Measures: Twenty-four-hour triglyceride area under the curve, fasting plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and apolipoprotein B (apoB) concentrations were measured. Results: Twenty-four-hour triglyceride area under the curve was increased compared with baseline during consumption of fructose (+4.7 ± 1.2 mmol/liter x 24 h, P = 0.0032) and HFCS (+1.8 ± 1.4 mmol/liter x 24 h, P = 0.035) but not glucose (-1.9 ± 0.9 mmol/liter x 24 h, P = 0.14). Fasting LDL and apoB concentrations were increased during consumption of fructose (LDL: +0.29 ± 0.082 mmol/liter, P = 0.0023; apoB: +0.093 ± 0.022 g/liter, P = 0.0005) and HFCS (LDL: +0.42 ± 0.11 mmol/liter, P < 0.0001; apoB: +0.12 ± 0.031 g/liter, P < 0.0001) but not glucose (LDL: +0.012 ± 0.071 mmol/liter, P = 0.86; apoB: +0.0097 ± 0.019 g/liter, P = 0.90). Conclusions: Consumption of HFCS-sweetened beverages for 2 wk at 25% E increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease comparably with fructose and more than glucose in young adults.

AB - Context: The American Heart Association Nutrition Committee recommends women and men consume no more than 100 and 150 kcal of added sugar per day, respectively, whereas the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, suggests a maximal added sugar intake of 25% or less of total energy. Objective: To address this discrepancy, we compared the effects of consuming glucose, fructose, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) at 25% of energy requirements (E) on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Participants, Design and Setting, and Intervention: Forty-eight adults (aged 18-40 yr; body mass index 18-35 kg/m 2) resided at the Clinical Research Center for 3.5 d of baseline testing while consuming energy-balanced diets containing55%E complex carbohydrate. For 12 outpatient days, they consumed usual ad libitum diets along with three servings per day of glucose, fructose, or HFCS-sweetened beverages (n = 16/group), which provided 25% E requirements. Subjects then consumed energy-balanced diets containing 25% E sugar-sweetened beverages/30% E complex carbohydrate during 3.5 d of inpatient intervention testing. Main Outcome Measures: Twenty-four-hour triglyceride area under the curve, fasting plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and apolipoprotein B (apoB) concentrations were measured. Results: Twenty-four-hour triglyceride area under the curve was increased compared with baseline during consumption of fructose (+4.7 ± 1.2 mmol/liter x 24 h, P = 0.0032) and HFCS (+1.8 ± 1.4 mmol/liter x 24 h, P = 0.035) but not glucose (-1.9 ± 0.9 mmol/liter x 24 h, P = 0.14). Fasting LDL and apoB concentrations were increased during consumption of fructose (LDL: +0.29 ± 0.082 mmol/liter, P = 0.0023; apoB: +0.093 ± 0.022 g/liter, P = 0.0005) and HFCS (LDL: +0.42 ± 0.11 mmol/liter, P < 0.0001; apoB: +0.12 ± 0.031 g/liter, P < 0.0001) but not glucose (LDL: +0.012 ± 0.071 mmol/liter, P = 0.86; apoB: +0.0097 ± 0.019 g/liter, P = 0.90). Conclusions: Consumption of HFCS-sweetened beverages for 2 wk at 25% E increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease comparably with fructose and more than glucose in young adults.

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DO - 10.1210/jc.2011-1251

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JO - Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

JF - Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

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