Constraints on transportation of reagents, reference materials and samples, difficulties and possible solutions: A user's perspective

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The air transportation of infectious materials is regulated by international air transport associations and based on United Nations Model regulations which have become more practical in addressing animal disease agents. However, individual countries' import and interstate requirements determine what materials can be imported and transported, and this approval process can be long, resulting in delays in organism confirmation, use of international OIE and other reference laboratories, and acquisition of reference materials, proficiency test panels, and reagents for performing necessary testing. Delays can be prevented for permits that are required for the routine work performed by a laboratory through the use of comprehensive and annually renewed permits. This process, however, does not address new and exotic agents where time is critical to an effective emergency response. This paper suggests actions by both the OIE and regulatory authorities which can assist in streamlining and expediting the permit process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)71-76
Number of pages6
JournalDevelopments in Biologicals
StatePublished - 2006



  • Reference materials
  • Transportation
  • Veterinary pathogen importation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Drug Discovery
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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