We review herein infections by Conidiobolus spp., Cryptococcus spp., and Aspergillus spp. in sheep and goats. Conidiobolus spp. are common causes of rhinitis in sheep and are less frequent in goats, in which Conidiobolus spp. also cause skin lesions. Cryptococcus spp. cause rhinitis, meningitis, encephalitis, and pneumonia in goats, and are rarely observed in sheep. Aspergillus spp. may cause rhinitis in goats, and pneumonia and mastitis in sheep and goats. Gross and microscopic lesions caused by these 3 fungal infections may be similar to each other. The diagnosis of these diseases must be based on gross and microscopic lesions, coupled with detection of the agent by immunohistochemical, molecular, and/or culture-based methods.
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