Congenital spinal malformations in small animals

Diccon R. Westworth, Beverly Sturges

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

69 Scopus citations


Congenital anomalies of the spine are common in small animals. The type of deformity, location, severity, time of onset of associated clinical signs, and progression of neurologic dysfunction varies widely. To promote clearer understanding, the authors present the various spinal malformations using modified human classification schemes and use current widely accepted definitions and terminology. The diagnostic approach, including utilization of advanced imaging, and surgical management is emphasized.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)951-981
Number of pages31
JournalVeterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2010


  • Anomaly
  • Congenital
  • Deformity
  • Malformation
  • Spine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Small Animals


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