Congenital Longitudinal Deficiency

Michael S. Bednar, Michelle James, Terry R. Light

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Radial and ulnar longitudinal deficiencies are the 2 most common types of congenital longitudinal deficiencies of the arm, with radial deficiency being 3 to 4 times more common. They are a spectrum of abnormalities, ranging from mild deficiency of the digits to complete loss of one-half the forearm, wrist, and fingers. Radial longitudinal deficiency is associated with a number of medical syndromes that require a comprehensive medical evaluation, while ulnar longitudinal deficiency (ULD) is associated with other musculoskeletal anomalies. Both conditions have a high incidence of ipsilateral thumb abnormalities. Wrist and forearm procedures, such as soft tissue distraction and centralization, are more often required in radial longitudinal deficiencies than in ULD. Elbow involvement can occur in both conditions but is more frequent and often more severe in ULD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1739-1747
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Hand Surgery
Issue number9
StatePublished - Nov 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • congenital abnormality
  • distraction osteogenesis
  • Radial longitudinal deficiency
  • ulnar longitudinal deficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Surgery


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