Concurrent West Nile virus and Mycobacterium avium infection in a black-necked swan (Cygnus melanocoryphus)

Deena Brenner, R. Scott Larsen, Raymund F. Wack, Dalen Agnew, Denise Imai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


An adult male black-necked swan (Cygnus melanocoryphus) was evaluated for a routine physical examination and West Nile virus vaccination. Nine days later, the swan was hospitalized for weakness, dehydration, tremors, and leukocytosis. Gradual clinical improvement was seen over a 2-wk course of supportive care. However, the animal became acutely weak and was found dead. Histopathology revealed severe granulomatous pneumonia and air sacculitis with dissemination to the liver, spleen, intestine, and coelom. Mycobacterial infection was confirmed by identification of acid-fast bacilli within tissue sections and by polymerase chain reaction. Concurrent West Nile virus infection was identified in sections of brain by using immunohistochemistry.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)357-362
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Black-necked swan
  • Cygnus melanocoryphus
  • Granulomatous pneumonia
  • Mycobacterium avium
  • West Nile virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)


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