Comprehensive Clinical, Diagnostic, and Advanced Imaging Characterization of the Ocular Surface in Spontaneous Aqueous Deficient Dry Eye Disease in Dogs

Brian C. Leonard, Kathleen A. Stewart, Gillian C. Shaw, Alyssa L. Hoehn, Amelia A. Stanley, Christopher J. Murphy, Sara M. Thomasy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

PURPOSE: To perform a comprehensive clinical, diagnostic, and imaging characterization of the ocular surface in West Highland White Terriers (WHWTs) diagnosed with aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) disease. METHODS: Six ADDE-affected and 13 ADDE-unaffected WHWT dogs were enrolled and underwent clinical assessment and disease scoring, tear osmolarity, phenol red thread test, Schirmer tear test, tear film breakup time, fluorescein staining, Rose bengal and lissamine green vital dye staining, meibometry, corneal esthesiometry, ultrasound pachymetry, optical coherence tomography, in vivo confocal microscopy, and conjunctival biopsy. Subjective assessment of their condition was provided by owner-reported surveys. RESULTS: ADDE-affected WHWT dogs had higher median clinical disease (conjunctiva: 5.75 vs. 0.00; cornea: 14.00 vs. 5.00; total: 17.50 vs. 5.00), vital staining (Rose bengal: 2.25 vs. 1.50; lissamine green: 2.00 vs. 1.00), and histologic disease (conjunctiva: 2 vs. 0) scores when compared with the controls. In addition, ADDE-affected WHWTs had significantly lower phenol red thread test (5.0 vs. 17.5, mm/15 s), Schirmer tear test (3 vs. 20, mm/min), tear film breakup time (3.6 vs. 13.9, s) values and higher area under the curve values for meibometry (394 vs. 245, meibometry units [MU]). There were no significant differences in other tear film tests performed. Advanced imaging revealed decreased tear meniscus height (optical coherence tomography) and variable pigment deposition within corneal epithelial cells (in vivo confocal microscopy). CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive assessment of ADDE-affected WHWTs depicts the ocular surface changes associated with quantitative lacrimal gland dysfunction. Importantly, ADDE-affected WHWTs may prove a valuable naturally occurring ADDE model for investigating underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the development of novel therapeutics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1568-1575
Number of pages8
JournalCornea
Volume38
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2019

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Eye Diseases
Diagnostic Imaging
Tears
Dogs
Phenolsulfonphthalein
Rose Bengal
Conjunctiva
Optical Coherence Tomography
Staining and Labeling
Lissamine Green Dyes
Confocal Microscopy
Lacrimal Apparatus
Fluorescein
Osmolar Concentration
Cornea
Area Under Curve
Epithelial Cells
Biopsy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

Cite this

Comprehensive Clinical, Diagnostic, and Advanced Imaging Characterization of the Ocular Surface in Spontaneous Aqueous Deficient Dry Eye Disease in Dogs. / Leonard, Brian C.; Stewart, Kathleen A.; Shaw, Gillian C.; Hoehn, Alyssa L.; Stanley, Amelia A.; Murphy, Christopher J.; Thomasy, Sara M.

In: Cornea, Vol. 38, No. 12, 01.12.2019, p. 1568-1575.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "PURPOSE: To perform a comprehensive clinical, diagnostic, and imaging characterization of the ocular surface in West Highland White Terriers (WHWTs) diagnosed with aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) disease. METHODS: Six ADDE-affected and 13 ADDE-unaffected WHWT dogs were enrolled and underwent clinical assessment and disease scoring, tear osmolarity, phenol red thread test, Schirmer tear test, tear film breakup time, fluorescein staining, Rose bengal and lissamine green vital dye staining, meibometry, corneal esthesiometry, ultrasound pachymetry, optical coherence tomography, in vivo confocal microscopy, and conjunctival biopsy. Subjective assessment of their condition was provided by owner-reported surveys. RESULTS: ADDE-affected WHWT dogs had higher median clinical disease (conjunctiva: 5.75 vs. 0.00; cornea: 14.00 vs. 5.00; total: 17.50 vs. 5.00), vital staining (Rose bengal: 2.25 vs. 1.50; lissamine green: 2.00 vs. 1.00), and histologic disease (conjunctiva: 2 vs. 0) scores when compared with the controls. In addition, ADDE-affected WHWTs had significantly lower phenol red thread test (5.0 vs. 17.5, mm/15 s), Schirmer tear test (3 vs. 20, mm/min), tear film breakup time (3.6 vs. 13.9, s) values and higher area under the curve values for meibometry (394 vs. 245, meibometry units [MU]). There were no significant differences in other tear film tests performed. Advanced imaging revealed decreased tear meniscus height (optical coherence tomography) and variable pigment deposition within corneal epithelial cells (in vivo confocal microscopy). CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive assessment of ADDE-affected WHWTs depicts the ocular surface changes associated with quantitative lacrimal gland dysfunction. Importantly, ADDE-affected WHWTs may prove a valuable naturally occurring ADDE model for investigating underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the development of novel therapeutics.",
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T1 - Comprehensive Clinical, Diagnostic, and Advanced Imaging Characterization of the Ocular Surface in Spontaneous Aqueous Deficient Dry Eye Disease in Dogs

AU - Leonard, Brian C.

AU - Stewart, Kathleen A.

AU - Shaw, Gillian C.

AU - Hoehn, Alyssa L.

AU - Stanley, Amelia A.

AU - Murphy, Christopher J.

AU - Thomasy, Sara M.

PY - 2019/12/1

Y1 - 2019/12/1

N2 - PURPOSE: To perform a comprehensive clinical, diagnostic, and imaging characterization of the ocular surface in West Highland White Terriers (WHWTs) diagnosed with aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) disease. METHODS: Six ADDE-affected and 13 ADDE-unaffected WHWT dogs were enrolled and underwent clinical assessment and disease scoring, tear osmolarity, phenol red thread test, Schirmer tear test, tear film breakup time, fluorescein staining, Rose bengal and lissamine green vital dye staining, meibometry, corneal esthesiometry, ultrasound pachymetry, optical coherence tomography, in vivo confocal microscopy, and conjunctival biopsy. Subjective assessment of their condition was provided by owner-reported surveys. RESULTS: ADDE-affected WHWT dogs had higher median clinical disease (conjunctiva: 5.75 vs. 0.00; cornea: 14.00 vs. 5.00; total: 17.50 vs. 5.00), vital staining (Rose bengal: 2.25 vs. 1.50; lissamine green: 2.00 vs. 1.00), and histologic disease (conjunctiva: 2 vs. 0) scores when compared with the controls. In addition, ADDE-affected WHWTs had significantly lower phenol red thread test (5.0 vs. 17.5, mm/15 s), Schirmer tear test (3 vs. 20, mm/min), tear film breakup time (3.6 vs. 13.9, s) values and higher area under the curve values for meibometry (394 vs. 245, meibometry units [MU]). There were no significant differences in other tear film tests performed. Advanced imaging revealed decreased tear meniscus height (optical coherence tomography) and variable pigment deposition within corneal epithelial cells (in vivo confocal microscopy). CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive assessment of ADDE-affected WHWTs depicts the ocular surface changes associated with quantitative lacrimal gland dysfunction. Importantly, ADDE-affected WHWTs may prove a valuable naturally occurring ADDE model for investigating underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the development of novel therapeutics.

AB - PURPOSE: To perform a comprehensive clinical, diagnostic, and imaging characterization of the ocular surface in West Highland White Terriers (WHWTs) diagnosed with aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) disease. METHODS: Six ADDE-affected and 13 ADDE-unaffected WHWT dogs were enrolled and underwent clinical assessment and disease scoring, tear osmolarity, phenol red thread test, Schirmer tear test, tear film breakup time, fluorescein staining, Rose bengal and lissamine green vital dye staining, meibometry, corneal esthesiometry, ultrasound pachymetry, optical coherence tomography, in vivo confocal microscopy, and conjunctival biopsy. Subjective assessment of their condition was provided by owner-reported surveys. RESULTS: ADDE-affected WHWT dogs had higher median clinical disease (conjunctiva: 5.75 vs. 0.00; cornea: 14.00 vs. 5.00; total: 17.50 vs. 5.00), vital staining (Rose bengal: 2.25 vs. 1.50; lissamine green: 2.00 vs. 1.00), and histologic disease (conjunctiva: 2 vs. 0) scores when compared with the controls. In addition, ADDE-affected WHWTs had significantly lower phenol red thread test (5.0 vs. 17.5, mm/15 s), Schirmer tear test (3 vs. 20, mm/min), tear film breakup time (3.6 vs. 13.9, s) values and higher area under the curve values for meibometry (394 vs. 245, meibometry units [MU]). There were no significant differences in other tear film tests performed. Advanced imaging revealed decreased tear meniscus height (optical coherence tomography) and variable pigment deposition within corneal epithelial cells (in vivo confocal microscopy). CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive assessment of ADDE-affected WHWTs depicts the ocular surface changes associated with quantitative lacrimal gland dysfunction. Importantly, ADDE-affected WHWTs may prove a valuable naturally occurring ADDE model for investigating underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the development of novel therapeutics.

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