Complex flow patterns in the great vessels: A review

Hugo G. Bogren, Michael H. Buonocore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


The article reviews the applications of magnetic resonance velocity mapping based on phase shifts in the protons to quantify blood flow velocity and blood flow volume. The method can be used to study normal physiology of blood flow in the aorta and its major branches, including forward and backward flow, to measure the aortic valve function in aortic valvular disease, stenosis and regurgitation, as well as pulmonary artery flow velocities in pulmonic insufficiency and regurgitation. Superior vena cava flows, pulmonary vein flows, left-to-right shunts, atrial and ventricular pulmonary conduit flows can also be measured. Two- and three-directional velocity mapping is reviewed and can be used to study three- or four-D flows in the aorta and the major arteries in great detail.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)105-113
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiac Imaging
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1999


  • 4-D blood flow
  • MR velocity mapping
  • Particle path
  • Thoracic aorta
  • Vector mapping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology


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