Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a latent tumor suppressor gene. To investigate the therapeutic effect of MnSOD and its mechanisms, a replication-competent recombinant adenovirus with E1B 55-kDa gene deletion (ZD55) was constructed, and human MnSOD and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) genes were inserted to form ZD55-MnSOD and ZD55-TRAIL. ZD55-MnSOD exhibited an inhibition in tumor cell growth ∼ 1,000-fold greater than Ad-MnSOD. ZD55-TRAIL was shown to induce the MnSOD expression in SW620 cells. Accordingly, by the combined use of ZD55-MnSOD with ZD55-TRAIL (i.e., "dual gene virotherapy"), all established colorectal tumor xenografts were completely eliminated in nude mice. The evidence exists that the MnSOD overexpression led to a slower tumor cell growth both in vitro and in vivo as a result of apoptosis caused by MnSOD and TRAIL overexpression after adenoviral transduction. Our results showed that the production of hydrogen peroxide derived from MnSOD dismutation activated caspase-8, which might down-regulate Bcl-2 expression and induce Bax translocation to mitochondria. Subsequently, Bax translocation enhanced the release of apoptosis-initiating factor and cytochrome c. Cytochrome c finally triggered apoptosis by activating caspase-9 and caspase-3 in apoptotic cascade. Bax-mediated apoptosis seems to be dependent on caspase-8 activation because the inhibition of caspase-8 prevented Bid processing and Bax translocation. In conclusion, our dual gene virotherapy completely eliminated colorectal tumor xenografts via enhanced apoptosis, and this novel strategy points toward a new direction of cancer treatment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research