Results 387 (53%) patients were frail based on self-reported function, of whom 209 (29% of the cohort) met the performance-based definition. Only 23 (3%) met the performance-based definition of frailty only. The self-report definition had 90% sensitivity, 64% specificity, 54% positive predictive value, 93% negative predictive value, and 72.5% overall accuracy. Intracellular water per kilogram of body weight and serum albumin, prealbumin, and creatinine levels were highest among nonfrail individuals, intermediate among those who were frail by self-report, and lowest among those who also were frail by performance. Age, percentage of body fat, and C-reactive protein level followed an opposite pattern. The modified self-report definition had better accuracy (84%; 95% CI, 79%-89%) and superior specificity (88%) and positive predictive value (67%).
Limitations Our study did not address prediction of outcomes.
Conclusions Patients who meet the self-report-based but not the performance-based definition of frailty may represent an intermediate phenotype. A modified self-report definition can improve the accuracy of a questionnaire-based method of defining frailty.
Study Design In a cross-sectional study, we compared prevalence and patient characteristics based on a frailty definition that uses self-reported function to the classic performance-based definition and developed a modified self-report-based definition.
Background A well-accepted definition of frailty includes measurements of physical performance, which may limit its clinical utility.
Setting & Participants Prevalent adult patients receiving hemodialysis in 14 centers around San Francisco and Atlanta in 2009-2011.
Index Tests Self-report-based frailty definition in which a score lower than 75 on the Physical Function scale of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was substituted for gait speed and grip strength in the classic definition; modified self-report definition with optimized Physical Function score cutoff points derived in a development (one-half) cohort and validated in the other half.
Reference Test Performance-based frailty defined as 3 of the following: weight loss, weakness, exhaustion, low physical activity, and slow gait speed.
- end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
- physical activity
- physical function
- physical performance
- self-reported function
ASJC Scopus subject areas