Comparison of ophthalmic measurements obtained via high-frequency ultrasound imaging in four species of snakes

Steven R Hollingsworth, Bradford J. Holmberg, Anneliese Strunk, Alicia D. Oakley, Leann M. Sickafoose, Philip H Kass

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective - To measure the dimensions of the eyes of living snakes by use of high-frequency ultrasound imaging and correlate those measurements with age, length, and weight. Animals - 14 clinically normal snakes. Procedures - Species, age, length, weight, and horizontal spectacle diameter were record- ed, and each snake underwent physical and ophthalmic examinations; ultrasonographic examination of both eyes was performed by use of a commercially available ultrasound unit and a 50-MHz transducer. Ultrasonographic measurements included spectacle thickness, subspectacular space depth, corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous cavity depth, and globe length. All measurements were made along the visual axis. Results - 2 corn snakes, 5 California king snakes, 1 gopher snake, and 6 ball pythons were examined. There were no significant differences within or between the species with regard to mean spectacle thickness, corneal thickness, or subspectacular space depth. HoweVet, mean horizontal spectacle diameter, anterior chamber depth, and axial globe length differed among the 4 species; for each measurement, ball pythons had significantly larger values than California king snakes. Conclusions and clinical relevance - Spectacle thickness, subspectacular space depth, and corneal thickness were similar among the species of snake examined and did not vary significantly with age, length, or weight. Measurements of these dimensions can potentially serve as baseline values to evaluate snakes of these species with a retained spectacle, subspectacular abscess, or subspectacular fluid accumulation. Anterior chamber depth and axial length appeared variable among species, but axial length did not vary with age, length, or weight in the species studied.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1111-1114
Number of pages4
JournalAmerican Journal of Veterinary Research
Volume68
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2007

Fingerprint

Snakes
ultrasonography
snakes
Ultrasonography
eyes
Anterior Chamber
Colubridae
Boidae
Weights and Measures
Python
Gophers
Transducers
abscess
Abscess
Lenses
Physical Examination
Zea mays
Lens
normal values

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Comparison of ophthalmic measurements obtained via high-frequency ultrasound imaging in four species of snakes. / Hollingsworth, Steven R; Holmberg, Bradford J.; Strunk, Anneliese; Oakley, Alicia D.; Sickafoose, Leann M.; Kass, Philip H.

In: American Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol. 68, No. 10, 10.2007, p. 1111-1114.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hollingsworth, Steven R ; Holmberg, Bradford J. ; Strunk, Anneliese ; Oakley, Alicia D. ; Sickafoose, Leann M. ; Kass, Philip H. / Comparison of ophthalmic measurements obtained via high-frequency ultrasound imaging in four species of snakes. In: American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007 ; Vol. 68, No. 10. pp. 1111-1114.
@article{1547f6c0a6a54903a24e93c33e70538f,
title = "Comparison of ophthalmic measurements obtained via high-frequency ultrasound imaging in four species of snakes",
abstract = "Objective - To measure the dimensions of the eyes of living snakes by use of high-frequency ultrasound imaging and correlate those measurements with age, length, and weight. Animals - 14 clinically normal snakes. Procedures - Species, age, length, weight, and horizontal spectacle diameter were record- ed, and each snake underwent physical and ophthalmic examinations; ultrasonographic examination of both eyes was performed by use of a commercially available ultrasound unit and a 50-MHz transducer. Ultrasonographic measurements included spectacle thickness, subspectacular space depth, corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous cavity depth, and globe length. All measurements were made along the visual axis. Results - 2 corn snakes, 5 California king snakes, 1 gopher snake, and 6 ball pythons were examined. There were no significant differences within or between the species with regard to mean spectacle thickness, corneal thickness, or subspectacular space depth. HoweVet, mean horizontal spectacle diameter, anterior chamber depth, and axial globe length differed among the 4 species; for each measurement, ball pythons had significantly larger values than California king snakes. Conclusions and clinical relevance - Spectacle thickness, subspectacular space depth, and corneal thickness were similar among the species of snake examined and did not vary significantly with age, length, or weight. Measurements of these dimensions can potentially serve as baseline values to evaluate snakes of these species with a retained spectacle, subspectacular abscess, or subspectacular fluid accumulation. Anterior chamber depth and axial length appeared variable among species, but axial length did not vary with age, length, or weight in the species studied.",
author = "Hollingsworth, {Steven R} and Holmberg, {Bradford J.} and Anneliese Strunk and Oakley, {Alicia D.} and Sickafoose, {Leann M.} and Kass, {Philip H}",
year = "2007",
month = "10",
doi = "10.2460/ajvr.68.10.1111",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "68",
pages = "1111--1114",
journal = "American Journal of Veterinary Research",
issn = "0002-9645",
publisher = "American Veterinary Medical Association",
number = "10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Comparison of ophthalmic measurements obtained via high-frequency ultrasound imaging in four species of snakes

AU - Hollingsworth, Steven R

AU - Holmberg, Bradford J.

AU - Strunk, Anneliese

AU - Oakley, Alicia D.

AU - Sickafoose, Leann M.

AU - Kass, Philip H

PY - 2007/10

Y1 - 2007/10

N2 - Objective - To measure the dimensions of the eyes of living snakes by use of high-frequency ultrasound imaging and correlate those measurements with age, length, and weight. Animals - 14 clinically normal snakes. Procedures - Species, age, length, weight, and horizontal spectacle diameter were record- ed, and each snake underwent physical and ophthalmic examinations; ultrasonographic examination of both eyes was performed by use of a commercially available ultrasound unit and a 50-MHz transducer. Ultrasonographic measurements included spectacle thickness, subspectacular space depth, corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous cavity depth, and globe length. All measurements were made along the visual axis. Results - 2 corn snakes, 5 California king snakes, 1 gopher snake, and 6 ball pythons were examined. There were no significant differences within or between the species with regard to mean spectacle thickness, corneal thickness, or subspectacular space depth. HoweVet, mean horizontal spectacle diameter, anterior chamber depth, and axial globe length differed among the 4 species; for each measurement, ball pythons had significantly larger values than California king snakes. Conclusions and clinical relevance - Spectacle thickness, subspectacular space depth, and corneal thickness were similar among the species of snake examined and did not vary significantly with age, length, or weight. Measurements of these dimensions can potentially serve as baseline values to evaluate snakes of these species with a retained spectacle, subspectacular abscess, or subspectacular fluid accumulation. Anterior chamber depth and axial length appeared variable among species, but axial length did not vary with age, length, or weight in the species studied.

AB - Objective - To measure the dimensions of the eyes of living snakes by use of high-frequency ultrasound imaging and correlate those measurements with age, length, and weight. Animals - 14 clinically normal snakes. Procedures - Species, age, length, weight, and horizontal spectacle diameter were record- ed, and each snake underwent physical and ophthalmic examinations; ultrasonographic examination of both eyes was performed by use of a commercially available ultrasound unit and a 50-MHz transducer. Ultrasonographic measurements included spectacle thickness, subspectacular space depth, corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous cavity depth, and globe length. All measurements were made along the visual axis. Results - 2 corn snakes, 5 California king snakes, 1 gopher snake, and 6 ball pythons were examined. There were no significant differences within or between the species with regard to mean spectacle thickness, corneal thickness, or subspectacular space depth. HoweVet, mean horizontal spectacle diameter, anterior chamber depth, and axial globe length differed among the 4 species; for each measurement, ball pythons had significantly larger values than California king snakes. Conclusions and clinical relevance - Spectacle thickness, subspectacular space depth, and corneal thickness were similar among the species of snake examined and did not vary significantly with age, length, or weight. Measurements of these dimensions can potentially serve as baseline values to evaluate snakes of these species with a retained spectacle, subspectacular abscess, or subspectacular fluid accumulation. Anterior chamber depth and axial length appeared variable among species, but axial length did not vary with age, length, or weight in the species studied.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=35448929937&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=35448929937&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.2460/ajvr.68.10.1111

DO - 10.2460/ajvr.68.10.1111

M3 - Article

VL - 68

SP - 1111

EP - 1114

JO - American Journal of Veterinary Research

JF - American Journal of Veterinary Research

SN - 0002-9645

IS - 10

ER -