Comparison of high (5%) and low (1%) concentrations of micellar microemulsion propofol formulations with a standard (1%) lipid emulsion in horses

Pedro Boscan, Eugene Steffey, Thomas B Farver, Khursheed R. Mama, Nick J. Huang, Steven B. Harris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Objective - To compare anesthesia-related events associated with IV administration of 2 novel micellar microemulsion preparations (1% and 5%) and a commercially available formulation (1%) of propofol in horses. Animals - 9 healthy horses. Procedures - On 3 occasions, each horse was anesthetized with 1 of the 3 propofol formulations (1% or 5% microemulsion or 1% commercial preparation). All horses received xylazine (1 mg/kg, IV), and anesthesia was induced with propofol (2 mg/kg, IV). Induction and recovery events were quantitatively and qualitatively assessed. Venous blood samples were obtained before and at intervals following anesthesia for quantification of clinicopathologic variables. Results - Compared with the commercial formulation, the quality of anesthesia induction in horses was slightly better with the micellar microemulsion formulas. In contrast, recovery characteristics were qualitatively and quantitatively indistinguishable among treatment groups (eg, time to stand after anesthesia was 34.3 ± 7.3 minutes, 34.1 ± 8.8 minutes, and 39.0 ± 7.6 minutes in horses treated with the commercial formulation, 1% microemulsion, and 5% microemulsion, respectively). During recovery from anesthesia, all horses stood on the first attempt and walked within 5 minutes of standing. No clinically relevant changes in hematologic and serum biochemical analytes were detected during a 3-day period following anesthesia. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Results suggest that the micellar microemulsion preparation of propofol (1% or 5%) has similar anesthetic effects in horses, compared with the commercially available lipid propofol formulation. Additionally, the micellar microemulsion preparation is anticipated to have comparatively low production costs and can be manufactured in various concentrations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1476-1483
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Veterinary Research
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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