Comparative efficacy and incremental cost per responder of methotrexate versus apremilast for methotrexate-naïve patients with psoriasis

April W. Armstrong, Keith A. Betts, Murali Sundaram, Darren Thomason, James E. Signorovitch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Background: To our knowledge, no clinical trials directly compare apremilast with methotrexate (the standard of care for initial systemic treatment of psoriasis). Objective: We sought to compare apremilast's relative efficacy with that of methotrexate for moderate to severe psoriasis. Methods: An anchor-based indirect comparison was conducted for 75% improvement in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score from baseline to week 16 (PASI 75) rates for systemic-naïve patients from Efficacy and Safety Trial Evaluating the Effects of apreMilast in psoriasis (ESTEEM) 1 and 2 (apremilast vs placebo) and Comparative study of HumirA vs. Methotrexate vs Placebo In psOriasis patieNts (CHAMPION) (adalimumab vs methotrexate vs placebo) trials. The difference-in-difference in PASI 75 response rates was calculated as the difference between the ESTEEM apremilast and placebo rates and the CHAMPION methotrexate versus placebo rates. Number needed to treat and incremental drug cost per responder were also estimated. Results: No statistically significant difference was found between apremilast and methotrexate in PASI 75 (risk difference 13.1%; 95% confidence interval -1.8% to 28.0%; . P = .09). Number needed to treat with apremilast versus methotrexate to gain 1 additional PASI 75 responder was 7.6. Annual incremental drug cost of this responder was estimated at $187,888.33. Limitations: Few trials compare systemic-naïve patients. Only direct medication costs were considered. Conclusions: There was no statistical evidence of greater efficacy for apremilast versus methotrexate. The $187,888 incremental cost per PASI 75 may exceed what payers are willing to pay.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of the American Academy of Dermatology
StateAccepted/In press - 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Apremilast
  • Cost per responder
  • Cost-effectiveness
  • Indirect comparison
  • Methotrexate
  • Moderate to severe psoriasis
  • Number needed to treat
  • Psoriasis Area and Severity Index

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology


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