Comparative effects of light or heavy resistance power training for improving lower extremity power and physical performance in mobility-limited older adults

Kieran F. Reid, Kimberly I. Martin, Gheorghe Doros, David J. Clark, Cynthia Hau, Carolynn Patten, Edward M. Phillips, Walter R. Frontera, Roger A. Fielding

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

53 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: We compared the effects of two uniquely different lower extremity power training interventions on changes in muscle power, physical performance, neuromuscular activation, and muscle cross sectional area in mobilitylimited older adults. Methods: Fifty-two subjects (78 ± 5 years, short physical performance battery score: 8.1 ± 1) were randomized to either 16 weeks of progressive high velocity resistance training performed at low external resistance (40% of the 1-repetition maximum [1-RM] [LO]) or high external resistance (70% of 1RM [HI]). Both groups completed three sets of leg and knee extension exercises at maximum voluntary velocity, two times per week. Neuromuscular activation was assessed using surface electromyography and muscle cross sectional area (CSA) was measured using computed tomography. Results: At 16 weeks, LO and HI exhibited significant and similar within-group increases of leg extensor peak power (∼34% vs ∼42%), strength (∼13% vs ∼19%), and SPPB score (1.4 ± 0.3 vs 1.8 ± 0.3 units), respectively (all P <.03). Improvements in neuromuscular activation occurred in LO (P =.03) while small gains in mid-thigh muscle CSA were detected in LO (1.6%, P =.35) and HI (2.1%, P =.17). No significant between-group differences were evident for any measured parameters (all P >.25). Conclusions: High velocity resistance training with low external resistance yields similar improvements in muscle power and physical performance compared to training with high external resistance in mobility-limited elders. These findings may have important implications for optimizing exercise interventions for older adults with mobility limitations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)374-380
Number of pages7
JournalJournals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Volume70
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • Exercise interventions
  • High-velocity resistance training
  • Mobility limitations
  • Muscle power

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aging
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

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