Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia—Changing Epidemiology, Resistance Patterns, and Newer Antibiotics: Spotlight on Delafloxacin

Roopali Sharma, Christian E. Sandrock, Joni Meehan, Nicolette Theriault

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality both in the USA and globally. As the burden of CAP continues to increase due to several factors, the advances in its diagnosis, prevention, and treatment have taken on even greater interest and importance. The majority of CAP patients are treated empirically, and selection of appropriate antibiotic treatment is increasingly difficult because the epidemiology of CAP is changing, in part due to antimicrobial resistance, and the causative CAP pathogens differ between countries and regions. There is also an increasing prevalence of chronic co-morbid diseases among CAP patients. Treatment of CAP has become challenging because of these factors along with the varying safety profiles and efficacy of well-established antibiotics, as well as limited new therapeutic options. Recently, however, new antibiotics have been approved, which will expand the treatment options for CAP, particularly in those patients with underlying complications. Recently approved delafloxacin, an anionic fluoroquinolone, has a unique structure and distinct chemical characteristics; it demonstrated non-inferiority to moxifloxacin in a phase III clinical trial, but was shown to be superior to moxifloxacin at early clinical response in CAP patients who also have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma as a co-morbidity, and in CAP patients who may have severe illness. Delafloxacin could offer an additional therapy against resistant isolates and among these difficult-to-treat patients. This review summarizes the development, latest research, and safety profile of the new antibiotic delafloxacin, and its potential future role in the treatment of CAP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)947-960
Number of pages14
JournalClinical Drug Investigation
Volume40
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)

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