Combined effects of dexmedetomidine and vatinoxan infusions on minimum alveolar concentration and cardiopulmonary function in sevoflurane-anesthetized dogs

Rachel C. Hector, Marlis L. Rezende, Khursheed R. Mama, Eugene P. Steffey, Marja R. Raekallio, Outi M. Vainio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objective: To evaluate the effects of combined infusions of vatinoxan and dexmedetomidine on inhalant anesthetic requirement and cardiopulmonary function in dogs. Study design: Prospective experimental study. Methods: A total of six Beagle dogs were anesthetized to determine sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) prior to and after an intravenous (IV) dose (loading, then continuous infusion) of dexmedetomidine (4.5 μg kg–1 hour–1) and after two IV doses of vatinoxan in sequence (90 and 180 μg kg–1 hour–1). Blood was collected for plasma dexmedetomidine and vatinoxan concentrations. During a separate anesthesia, cardiac output (CO) was measured under equivalent MAC conditions of sevoflurane and dexmedetomidine, and then with each added dose of vatinoxan. For each treatment, cardiovascular variables were measured with spontaneous and controlled ventilation. Repeated measures analyses were performed for each response variable; for all analyses, p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Dexmedetomidine reduced sevoflurane MAC by 67% (0.64 ± 0.1%), mean ± standard deviation in dogs. The addition of vatinoxan attenuated this to 57% (0.81 ± 0.1%) and 43% (1.1 ± 0.1%) with low and high doses, respectively, and caused a reduction in plasma dexmedetomidine concentrations. Heart rate and CO decreased while systemic vascular resistance increased with dexmedetomidine regardless of ventilation mode. The co-administration of vatinoxan dose-dependently modified these effects such that cardiovascular variables approached baseline. Conclusions and clinical relevance: IV infusions of 90 and 180 μg kg–1 hour–1 of vatinoxan combined with 4.5 μg kg–1 hour–1 dexmedetomidine provide a meaningful reduction in sevoflurane requirement in dogs. Although sevoflurane MAC-sparing properties of dexmedetomidine in dogs are attenuated by vatinoxan, the cardiovascular function is improved. Doses of vatinoxan >180 μg kg–1 hour–1 might improve cardiovascular function further in combination with this dose of dexmedetomidine, but beneficial effects on anesthesia plane and recovery quality may be lost.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalVeterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
StateAccepted/In press - 2021


  • cardiac output
  • dexmedetomidine
  • minimum alveolar concentration
  • vatinoxan
  • α-adrenoreceptor agonist
  • α-adrenoreceptor antagonist

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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