Background: HIV has become a chronic disease, which may render this population more prone to developing the colorectal pathologies that typically affect older Americans. Methods: A retrospective review of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample was performed to identify patients who underwent colon and rectal surgery from 2001 to 2010. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate outcomes among the general population, patients with HIV, and patients with AIDS. Results: Hospital admissions for colon and rectal procedures of patients with HIV/AIDS grew at a faster rate than all-cause admissions of patients with HIV/AIDS, with mean yearly increases of 17.8 and 2.1 %, respectively (p < 0.05). Patients with HIV/AIDS undergoing colon and rectal operations for cancer, polyps, diverticular disease, and Clostridium difficile were younger than the general population (51 vs. 65 years; p < 0.01). AIDS was independently associated with increased odds of mortality (OR 2.11; 95 % CI 1.24, 3.61), wound complications (OR 1.53; 95 % CI 1.09, 2.17), and pneumonia (OR 2.02; 95 % CI 1.33, 3.08). Risk-adjusted outcomes of colorectal surgery in patients with HIV did not differ significantly from the general population. Conclusion: Postoperative outcomes in patients with HIV are similar to the general population, while patients with AIDS have a higher risk of mortality and certain complications.
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