Cognitive Function and the Microbiome

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

22 Scopus citations

Abstract

There is increasing evidence that the composition of the resident bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract can influence the brain and behavior, particularly with respect to cognitive function. Cognitive function encompasses the life-long process of learning, both long- and short-term processes. Cognition was originally thought to be exclusively regulated by the central nervous system, with long-term potentiation and neurogenesis contributing to the creation and storage of memories, but now other systems, including, for example, the immune system and the intestinal microbiome may also be involved. Cognitive impairment has been identified in numerous disease states, both gastrointestinal and extraintestinal in nature, many of which have also been characterized as having a role for dysbiosis in disease pathogenesis. This includes, but is not limited to, inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, type 1 diabetes, obesity, major depressive disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. The role of cognition and the microbiome will be discussed in this chapter for all these diseases, as well as evidence for a role in maintaining overall human health and well being. Finally, evidence for a role for probiotics in beneficially modulating the microbiota and leading to improved cognition will be discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationInternational Review of Neurobiology
PublisherAcademic Press Inc.
Pages227-246
Number of pages20
Volume131
DOIs
StatePublished - 2016

Publication series

NameInternational Review of Neurobiology
Volume131
ISSN (Print)00747742

Keywords

  • Cognition
  • Development
  • Gastrointestinal physiology
  • Hippocampus
  • Probiotics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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  • Cite this

    Gareau, M. (2016). Cognitive Function and the Microbiome. In International Review of Neurobiology (Vol. 131, pp. 227-246). (International Review of Neurobiology; Vol. 131). Academic Press Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.irn.2016.08.001