Cocoa Flavanol-Enriched Snack Bars Containing Phytosterols Effectively Lower Total and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels

John A. Polagruto, Janice F. Wang-Polagruto, Marlia M. Braun, Luke Lee, Catherine Kwik-Uribe, Carl L Keen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

48 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Dietary intervention studies incorporating phytosterol-enriched margarine spreads have reported significant decreases in total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in populations with both normal lipid levels and those with hypercholesterolemia. There is emerging support for more diverse and lower-fat phytosterol-enriched matrixes. Controversy exists, however, over whether phytosterol-enriched foods affect serum fat-soluble vitamins. Objective: We investigated whether a flavanol-rich cocoa snack food containing phytosterols would decrease total and LDL cholesterol levels in subjects with hypercholesterolemia and significantly affect serum fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids. Design: A randomized, double-blind parallel arm study design was used. Subjects were randomized to one of two dietary treatments: a cocoa flavanol-enriched snack bar containing 1.5 g phytosterol (n=32), or a control product containing no phytosterols (n=35). Subjects consumed two servings per day. Results: Consumption of the phytosterol-enriched snack bars but not control bars for 6 weeks was associated with significant reductions in plasma total (4.7%; P<0.01) and LDL cholesterol (6%; P<0.01), and the ratio of total to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (7.4%; P<0.001). There were no changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, or lipid-adjusted lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, α-carotene levels, or levels of serum vitamins A or E. A significant reduction in lipid-adjusted serum β-carotene was observed in the phytosterol but not the no-phytosterol-added group (P<0.05). Conclusions: This study supports the use of a novel phytosterol-enriched snack bar to effectively reduce plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in a population with hypercholesterolemia. The data suggest that the incorporation of this snack food into a balanced diet represents a practical dietary strategy in the management of serum cholesterol levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1804-1813
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the American Dietetic Association
Volume106
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2006
Externally publishedYes

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Phytosterols
Snacks
phytosterols
snacks
flavanols
low density lipoprotein cholesterol
LDL Cholesterol
hypercholesterolemia
Carotenoids
Hypercholesterolemia
snack foods
fat soluble vitamins
Serum
Fats
carotenes
lipids
Lipids
high density lipoprotein cholesterol
Vitamins
HDL Cholesterol

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Cocoa Flavanol-Enriched Snack Bars Containing Phytosterols Effectively Lower Total and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels. / Polagruto, John A.; Wang-Polagruto, Janice F.; Braun, Marlia M.; Lee, Luke; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Keen, Carl L.

In: Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol. 106, No. 11, 11.2006, p. 1804-1813.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Polagruto, John A. ; Wang-Polagruto, Janice F. ; Braun, Marlia M. ; Lee, Luke ; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine ; Keen, Carl L. / Cocoa Flavanol-Enriched Snack Bars Containing Phytosterols Effectively Lower Total and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels. In: Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2006 ; Vol. 106, No. 11. pp. 1804-1813.
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AU - Polagruto, John A.

AU - Wang-Polagruto, Janice F.

AU - Braun, Marlia M.

AU - Lee, Luke

AU - Kwik-Uribe, Catherine

AU - Keen, Carl L

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