The application of biphasic acid/solvent biomass reactor to the processing of soybean, sunflower, jatropha, camelina, safflower, and canola seeds, resulting in the conversion of the carbohydrates present in these feedstocks into the biofuel precursor 5-(chloromethyl)furfural (CMF 1) was studied. Mixtures of the seed oil and CMF 1 can be submitted to ethanolysis to give ethyl levulinate 4 and biodiesel ethyl ester 5. Alternatively, heating seed oil-CMF1 mixtures in water results in the hydrolysis of 1 to levulinic acid 2 while leaving the oil intact. Levulinate esters are short-chain oxygenates, which can be blended with diesel fuel and may improve its cold-performance properties. This method has the potential to revolutionize biodiesel production by merging lipid- and cellulose-based biomass conversion technologies and thereby substantially increasing the overall yield of fuel produced from oil crops.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Fuel Technology