Clostridium perfringens type A-E toxin plasmids

John C. Freedman, James R. Theoret, Jessica A. Wisniewski, Francisco A Uzal, Julian I. Rood, Bruce A. McClane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Clostridium perfringens relies upon plasmid-encoded toxin genes to cause intestinal infections. These toxin genes are associated with insertion sequences that may facilitate their mobilization and transfer, giving rise to new toxin plasmids with common backbones. Most toxin plasmids carry a transfer of clostridial plasmids locus mediating conjugation, which likely explains the presence of similar toxin plasmids in otherwise unrelated C. perfringens strains. The association of many toxin genes with insertion sequences and conjugative plasmids provides virulence flexibility when causing intestinal infections. However, incompatibility issues apparently limit the number of toxin plasmids maintained by a single cell.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)264-279
Number of pages16
JournalResearch in Microbiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - May 1 2015


  • Clostridia
  • Conjugation
  • Gastrointestinal disease
  • Plasmid evolution
  • Plasmid-encoded toxin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Molecular Biology


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