Cloning and characterization of the gene for mouse macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)

Robert Mitchell, Michael Bacher, Jürgen Bernhagen, Tatyana Pushkarskaya, Michael F Seldin, Richard Bucala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

107 Scopus citations


An emerging body of data indicates that the protein mediator described originally as macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) exerts a central and wide ranging role in host inflammatory responses. MIF is a major constituent of corticotrophic cells within the anterior pituitary gland and is secreted into the circulation in a hormone-like fashion. MIF also exists preformed in monocytes/macrophages and is a pivotal mediator in the host response to endotoxic shock. To gain further insight into the biologic expression of this protein that encompasses components of both the immune and the endocrine systems, we have cloned the mouse MIF gene and identified potential regulatory sequences present within the 5′-proximal promoter region. The gene for mouse MIF is located on chromosome 10, spans approximately 1 kb, and shares a high degree of structural homology with its human counterpart. Of note, the consensus enhancer/promoter motifs identified include both inflammatory/growth factor-related elements and sites associated with the genes for certain peptide hormones. We also report the structures of two MIF pseudogenes that account for early observations suggesting that mouse MIF is encoded by a highly homologous multigene family.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3871-3879
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Immunology
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology


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