Clinicopathological and genomic characterization of BCORL1-driven high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas

Douglas I. Lin, Richard S.P. Huang, Douglas A. Mata, Brennan Decker, Natalie Danziger, Mirna Lechpammer, Matthew Hiemenz, Shakti H. Ramkissoon, Jeffrey S. Ross, Julia A. Elvin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BCORL1 is a transcriptional corepressor homologous to BCOR. We describe 12 BCORL1-altered uterine sarcomas with striking resemblance to BCOR-altered endometrial stromal sarcoma (BCOR-ESS), including 5 with BCORL1 rearrangements (JAZF1-BCORL1, EP300-BCORL1, or internal BCORL1 rearrangement), 5 with inactivating BCORL1 mutations (T513fs*22, P600fs*1, R945*, R1196*, or R1265fs*4) and 2 with homozygous BCORL1 deletion. The median patient age was 57.5 years (range 33–79). An association with aggressive clinical behavior was identified. Diagnoses assigned prior to genomic testing varied: 7 tumors were previously diagnosed as ESS, 2 as high-grade uterine sarcomas, 2 as myxoid uterine leiomyosarcomas, and 1 as a uterine spindle cell neoplasm consistent with leiomyosarcoma. Tumors harbored frequent gelatinous, mucomyxoid-like appearance by gross examination and unique histology with morphological overlap with BCOR-ESS. Key microscopic features included (1) a spindle cell appearance, most often with at least focal myxoid stroma, (2) variable amounts of hypocellular fibromyxoid spindle areas with lower grade atypia and/or (3) variable amounts of epithelioid areas with higher grade atypia. Specifically, spindle and epithelioid components were present in 100 and 75% of sarcomas, respectively; myxoid stroma was identified in 83%, collagen plaques or fibrosis in 50%, and high-grade nuclear atypia was present in 42%. Like BCOR-ESS, 50% of BCORL1-altered sarcomas exhibited CDK4 amplification or CDKN2A loss. In contrast, 33% harbored NF1 alterations, while 25% had other alterations in the NF2-mTOR pathway, expanding potential therapeutic targets. In conclusion, inactivating BCORL1 genomic alterations may define a distinct subset of high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas with biological overlap with BCOR-ESS, both of which may mimic myxoid leiomyosarcomas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalModern Pathology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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