Clinical evaluation and biochemical analyses of thiamine deficiency in pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) maintained at a zoological facility

Lara Croft, Eleonora Napoli, Connie K. Hung, Judy St. Leger, Scott Gearhart, Kathy Heym, Sarah Wong, Danielle Sakaguchi, Alex Lin, Birgit Puschner, Cecilia R Giulivi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Objective-To determine thiamine-dependent enzyme activities in various tissue samples of Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and thiaminase activities in dietary fish. Design-Cross-sectional study. Animals-11 Pacific harbor seals with thiamine deficiency and 5 control seals. Procedures-Seals underwent evaluation to rule out various diseases and exposure to toxins. For seals that died, measurement of thiamine-dependent enzymes in liver and brain samples and determination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in liver, brain, and muscle samples were performed. Thiaminase activity in dietary fish was determined. Results-8 seals with thiamine deficiency died. Affected seals typically had acute neurologic signs with few nonspecific findings detected by means of clinicopathologic tests and histologic examination of tissue samples. Thiamine-dependent enzyme activities in liver samples of affected seals were significantly lower than those in control liver samples. The primary activation ratios and latencies for enzymes indicated that brain tissue was more affected by thiamine deficiency than liver tissue. Activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase were more affected by thiamine deficiency than those of transketolase and ketoglutarate dehy-drogenase. For control seals, the mtDNA copy number in muscle samples was significantly lower than that for affected seals; conversely, the copy number in control liver samples was significantly greater than that of affected seals. Thiaminase activity was substantially higher in smelt than it was in other types of dietary fish. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results of analyses in this study confirmed a diagnosis of thiamine deficiency for affected seals resulting from high thiaminase activity in dietary fish, inadequate vitamin administration, and increased thiamine demand caused by pregnancy and lactation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1179-1189
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Issue number8
StatePublished - Oct 15 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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