Clinical and Immunologic Components of Sarcoidosis

Andrea T. Borchers, Calvin So, Stanley M Naguwa, Carl L Keen, M. Eric Gershwin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that affects the lungs and the lymphatic system. It is seen by specialists in allergy, rheumatology, and pulmonary disease. Although there are no clues to etiology, an environmental basis has been implicated primarily on the basis of epidemiologic and anecdotal data. The majority of patients are very readily diagnosed and should not be confused with other pulmonary disorders. Sarcoidosis can become an issue if it occurs in the presence of other significant pulmonary disease, such as patients with asthma or hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Most patients remain asymptomatic and many are diagnosed when picked up on a routine screening exam. Steroids can be used to manage some patients but caution should be exercised to choose the appropriate dose and to treat patients for a limited period of time to avoid the complications of steroids. A minority of patients do progress to significant disease, including morbidity and mortality, and further research is needed to determine more appropriate and specific therapy for such situations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)289-303
Number of pages15
JournalClinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 2003


  • Granulomatous disease
  • Immune response
  • Steroids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy


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