Clinical and Histological Features of Ovarian Hypoplasia/Dysgenesis in Alpacas

Eduardo Arroyo, Cristian Patiño, Michela Ciccarelli, Terje Raudsepp, Alan Conley, Ahmed Tibary

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Alpacas have a high incidence of congenital reproductive tract abnormalities, including ovarian hypoplasia/dysgenesis. Diagnosis of this condition is often challenging. The present study describes the clinical, ultrasonographic, and histologic features of ovarian hypoplasia/dysgenesis syndrome in 5 female alpacas. Additionally, serum AMH levels were compared between female alpacas diagnosed with ovarian hypoplasia/dysgenesis and a group of reproductively sound females (n = 11). The syndrome was suspected based on the presence of an infantile uterus and lack of ovaries by ultrasonography and laparoscopy. All females had normal female karyotype (n = 74 XX), but one presented a minute chromosome. The ovaries from these cases showed 3 main histological classifications: hypoplasia (n = 2), dysgenesis (n = 2), and dysplasia (n = 1). Serum AMH levels in affected females were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of reproductively sound control females. In conclusion, Serum AMH level may be helpful in the rapid diagnosis of ovarian hypoplasia/dysgenesis syndrome in alpacas. Furthermore, this syndrome in alpacas presents a variety of histological features. Different mechanisms may be involved in the derangement of ovarian differentiation. Further studies are needed to elucidate the causes of the syndrome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number837684
JournalFrontiers in Veterinary Science
StatePublished - Mar 25 2022


  • AMH
  • cytogenetics
  • histopathology
  • infertility
  • laparoscopy
  • ovary
  • Vicugna pacos

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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