Cleft deformities in Zimbabwe, Africa: Socioeconomic factors, epidemiology, and surgical reconstruction

Annette M. Pham, Travis Tate Tollefson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


In the African country of Zimbabwe, a variety of socioeconomic factors have contributed to a lack of specialty care and resources for the indigent population. Although cleft lip and palate has a lower incidence in Africa (0.67 per 1000 births) than in Latin America or Asia, access to reconstructive surgery is often difficult to obtain. A surgical team worked with Zimbabweans at the Harare Central Hospital, Harare, to perform cleft surgery for 39 patients. We review the epidemiology of cleft deformities in Africa, our experience with 39 patients with cleft lip and palate, and the techniques used to address 2 patients with midfacial clefts. To our knowledge, this retrospective case review and epidemiologic literature review is the first review of cleft care in Zimbabwe. Poverty in Zimbabwe, caused in part by the highest inflation rate in the world, has contributed to the emigration of a large number of specialists to other countries. In addition, the health care system is overwhelmed by a high prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus (25%), leading to a drastically reduced parental life expectancy (mean life expectancy, 36 years). Primary and secondary cleft lip and palate repairs were completed without complications. Children requiring care beyond the scope of this mission were referred to the Republic of South Africa. The cooperation among the Zimbabwean administration, physicians, and nurses was integral to the organization and successful execution of this reconstructive surgical mission. Ultimately, until the socioeconomic conditions improve in Zimbabwe, training and continuing education of local physicians are imperative to advance the care of children with cleft lip and palate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)385-391
Number of pages7
JournalArchives of Facial Plastic Surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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