Chronic medical conditions and late effects after acute myeloid leukaemia in adolescents and young adults: a population-based study

Renata Abrahão, Jasmine C. Huynh, David J. Benjamin, Qian W. Li, Lena E. Winestone, Lori Muffly, Theresa H.M. Keegan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Curative-intent treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) can lead to multiple chronic medical conditions ('late effects'). Little is known about the burden of late effects in adolescent and young adult (AYA, 15-39 years) survivors of AML. We aimed to estimate the cumulative incidence and investigate the main predictors of late effects among these patients. METHODS: During 1996-2012, 1168 eligible AYAs with AML who survived ≥2 years after diagnosis were identified in the California Cancer Registry. Late effects were reported from State hospital discharge data, and patients were followed through 2014. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of late effects occurrence were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical factors. RESULTS: The most common late effects at 10 years after diagnosis were: endocrine (26.1%), cardiovascular (18.6%) and respiratory (6.6%), followed by neurologic (4.9%), liver/pancreatic (4.3%), renal (3.1%), avascular necrosis (2.7%) and second primary malignancies (2.4%). Of 1168 survivors, 547 (46.8%) received a haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). After multivariable adjustments, AYAs who underwent HSCT or had a non-favourable risk AML experienced ∼2-fold or higher increased likelihood of all late effects. Additionally, AYAs of Hispanic, Black or Asian/Pacific Islander (vs non-Hispanic White) race/ethnicity and those who resided in lower socio-economic neighbourhoods were at higher risk of numerous late effects. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings underscore the need for long-term surveillance for the prevention, early detection and treatment of late effects, and can inform the development of AYA-focused consensus-based guidelines that will ultimately improve the quality of life and survival of these young vulnerable patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)663-674
Number of pages12
JournalInternational journal of epidemiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 17 2021


  • acute myeloid leukaemia
  • adolescent and young adult survivors
  • Late effects
  • population-based study

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology


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