Background: Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is linked to increased risk for age-related dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The gut microbiome is posited to influence AD risk, and an increase in microbial-derived secondary bile acids (BAs) is observed in AD patients. We recently reported that chronic exposure to ambient TRAP modified AD risk in a sex-dependent manner in the TgF344 AD (TG) rat. Objectives: In this study, we used samples from the same cohort to test our hypothesis that TRAP sex-dependently produces gut dysbiosis and increases secondary BAs to a larger extent in the TG rat relative to wildtype (WT) controls. Methods: Male and female TG and age-matched WT rats were exposed to either filtered air (FA) or TRAP from 28 days up to 15 months of age (n = 5–6). Tissue samples were collected after 9 or 14months of exposure. Results: At 10 months of age, TRAP tended to decrease the alpha diversity as well as the beneficial taxa Lactobacillus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens uniquely in male TG rats as determined by 16 S rDNA sequencing. A basal decrease in Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio was also noted in TG rats at 10 months. At 15 months of age, TRAP altered inflammation-related bacteria in the gut of female rats from both genotypes. BAs were more affected by chronic TRAP exposure in females, with a general trend of increase in host-produced unconjugated primary and microbiota-produced secondary BAs. Most of the mRNAs of the hepatic BA-processing genes were not altered by TRAP, except for a down-regulation of the BA-uptake transporter Ntcp in males. Conclusion: In conclusion, chronic TRAP exposure produced distinct gut dysbiosis and altered BA homeostasis in a sex and host genotype-specific manner.
- Alzheimer's disease
- Bile acid
- Gut microbiome
- Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis