Choroidal neuroendocrine neoplasia in a dog

Danica R. Lucyshyn, Kelly E. Knickelbein, Steven R. Hollingsworth, Christopher Michael Reilly, Kelsey D. Brust, Lance C. Visser, Rhonda Burge, Jennifer L. Willcox, David J. Maggs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To report onset and progression of clinical signs of a neuroendocrine neoplasm (NEN) presumed metastatic to the choroid in a dog. Animals Studied: A 7.5-year-old female spayed German shepherd dog mix referred for advanced imaging and evaluation of a subretinal mass in the right eye. Procedures: Procedures performed included general physical and ophthalmic examinations; ocular, orbital, and abdominal ultrasonography; thoracic radiographs; cranial magnetic resonance imaging; serologic testing for infectious agents; analysis of hematologic as well as serum and urine biochemical parameters; echocardiography; electrocardiography; cytologic assessment of lymph nodes; and histopathology and immunohistochemistry of the enucleated globe. Results: Examination and imaging identified a pigmented mass within and expanding the superior choroid. Following enucleation, a choroidal NEN with tumor emboli in scleral blood vessels was diagnosed by histopathologic assessment and confirmed by immunohistochemical labelling. Despite extensive and repeated diagnostic testing over many months, a putative primary site was not identified until 19 months after the initial ocular signs were noted. At that time, a heart-base mass and congestive heart failure were highly suggestive of a chemodectoma. Conclusion: This comprehensive report of a NEN presumed metastatic to the choroid in a dog suggests that ocular disease can be a very early and solitary sign of NEN in the dog.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalVeterinary Ophthalmology
StateAccepted/In press - 2021


  • carcinoid
  • chemodectoma
  • congestive heart failure
  • immunohistochemistry
  • metastasis
  • retinal detachment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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