It is clear from large clinical studies that selected chemokine receptors are often upregulated in a large number of common human cancers, including those of the breast, lung, prostate, colon, and melanoma. Chemokine receptors and their corresponding chemokine ligands have been demonstrated to play a number of nonredundant roles in cancer metastasis to vital organs as well as regional lymph nodes, the most frequent site of cancer metastasis. Chemokine receptors may potentially facilitate tumor dissemination at several key steps of metastasis, including adherence of tumor cells to endothelium, extravasation from blood vessels, metastatic colonization, angiogenesis, proliferation, and protection from the host response via activation of key survival pathways such as phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and Akt. It is interesting that many of these roles are reminiscent of their functions in leukocyte and stem cell trafficking. Lastly, we discuss therapeutic applications for chemokine receptor antagonists in cancer therapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology