Chemical-Catalytic Approaches to the Production of Furfurals and Levulinates from Biomass

Mark Mascal, Saikat Dutta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


The synthesis and chemistry of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF), 5-(chloromethyl)furfural (CMF), and levulinic acid (LA), three carbohydrate-derived platform molecules produced by the chemical-catalytic processing of lignocellulosic biomass, is reviewed. Starting from the historical derivation of these molecules and progressing through modern approaches to their production from biomass feedstocks, this review will then survey their principal derivative chemistries, with particular attention to aspects of commercial relevance, and discuss the relative merits of each molecule in the future of biorefining.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)41-83
Number of pages43
JournalTopics in Current Chemistry
StatePublished - 2014


  • 5-(Chloromethyl)furfural
  • 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural
  • Biomass
  • Biomass derivatives
  • Biorefinery
  • Catalysis
  • CMF
  • Green chemistry
  • HMF
  • Levulinic acid
  • Platform chemicals
  • Renewable chemistry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)


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