Characterizing low fluence thresholds for in vitro photodynamic therapy

Brad A. Hartl, Henry Hirschberg, Laura Marcu, Simon R Cherry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


The translation of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to the clinic has mostly been limited to superficial diseases where traditional light delivery is noninvasive. To overcome this limitation, a variety of mechanisms have been suggested to noninvasively deliver light to deep tissues. This work explores the minimum amount of light required by these methods to produce a meaningful PDT effect in the in vitro setting under representative low fluence and wavelength conditions. This threshold was found to be around 192 mJ/cm<sup>2</sup> using the clinically approved photosensitizer aminolevulinic acid and 12 mJ/cm<sup>2</sup> for the more efficient, second generation photosensitizer TPPS<inf>2a</inf>.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)770-779
Number of pages10
JournalBiomedical Optics Express
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biotechnology


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